Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES)
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The abdominal wall is frequently overlooked as a potential source of chronic abdominal pain. In anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), irritated intercostal nerves cause severe abdominal pain. Current textbooks fail to acknowledge ACNES. Aim of the present review is to provide detailed information on patient history, physical examination, and a three-step treatment protocol including abdominal wall injections and a localized removal of terminal branches of intercostal nerves.
KeywordsNerve entrapment Neuropathic pain Abdominal wall Neurectomy
Both authors, MS and RR, declare that they substantially and equally contributed to the conception and design of the work, revised it both very critically, they both give the final approval of the version to be submitted and published, and they agree to be equally accountable for all aspects of the work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Both authors, MS and RR, declare no conflicts of interest.
This review was performed under compliance with all ethical standards.
Human and animal rights
This article does not contain any study with humans or animals performed by the authors.
Considering the design of this review patient informed consent was not required.
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