Spatial surface patterns of hummocks, hollows, ridges, and pools (microtopography) are common features of many northern peatlands and are particularly distinct within the vast peatlands of the Hudson Bay Lowland (HBL), Canada. Hypotheses and models describe how small-scale feedbacks among vegetation, hydrology, and nutrients cause spatial differences in peat accumulation that enable microforms and surface patterns to develop over time. Empirical tests of the predictions from theoretical models of these proposed feedback mechanisms are limited, particularly in large peatland complexes such as the HBL. We investigate feedbacks controlling peatland structure and function in an ombrogenous bog and a minerogenous fen in the HBL. Our sites represent surface patterns found in many northern peatlands, specifically spatially irregular hummocks and hollows, and parallel ridges and pools that are perpendicular to slope. We found the occurrence of different spatial patterns depends on position within a peat landform, with these differences attributed to the ecohydrological setting. In turn, the ecohydrological setting, with different water table depths, nutrient availability, and species composition, influences the strength and direction of feedback mechanisms at the microform scale. Our data support the prediction of a positive feedback between plant productivity and acrotelm thickness for peat accumulation and hummock growth and that this may be enhanced by water ponding on slopes to form ridge–pool tracks. We did not find evidence to support the proposed feedback among evapotranspiration-driven transport of water and nutrients for the development of hummocks. Our results suggest a combination of mechanisms operating at various temporal and spatial scales is associated with the development of surface patterns in northern peatlands.
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We thank Annie Schreck, Isobel Phoebus, Annalise Miska, Stephanie Cotnoir, David Blair, Paul Wilson, Sofie Hojabri, and Tatjana Živković for their assistance in both the field and laboratory; Mike Dalva and Aaron Craig for assistance with laboratory analyses; and Dr. Koreen Millard for assistance with the DGPS surveys. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Attawapiskat First Nation and Mushkegowuk Council in establishing the research sites and for sharing traditional knowledge of the Hudson Bay Lowland. We are also grateful for logistical support from De Beers Canada Victor Mine and for the support of students and staff from other universities, especially Dr. Brian Branfireun and Dr. Elyn Humphreys, operating in this remote field location. We thank two anonymous reviewers whose comments improved the clarity of the manuscript. This research was funded by an NSERC Strategic Grant (STGP-397297-10) awarded to N.T.R. and others, and with generous support awarded to L.I.H. from the W. Garfield Weston Foundation Fellowship for Northern Conservation, administered by Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Canada.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
LIH designed the methodology, collected and analysed the data, and wrote the manuscript. NTR and TRM contributed to the methodology and data interpretation. All authors contributed critically to the draft manuscript and gave final approval for publication.
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Harris, L.I., Roulet, N.T. & Moore, T.R. Mechanisms for the Development of Microform Patterns in Peatlands of the Hudson Bay Lowland. Ecosystems 23, 741–767 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-019-00436-z
- surface patterns
- peat accumulation
- structuring mechanisms
- ecohydrological feedbacks
- nutrient accumulation
- water ponding
- Hudson Bay Lowland