Ecosystem Modeling for the 21st Century
Why Focus on Ecosystem Modeling?
Models play crucial roles in science, and ecosystem ecology is no exception. Ecosystem modeling emerged in the 1970s as early analog and digital computers made it possible to simulate system dynamics, and coordinated research programs like the International Biological Program (IBP) funded teams of scientists to study whole ecosystems. Quantitative ecosystem models were initially developed to mimic nature, generate questions, complement field experiments and observations, assimilate data, and conduct experiments that were not possible in nature (McIntosh 1985, p. 213; Golley 1993). Models continue to serve these key roles in ecosystem ecology, allowing consequences of assumptions to be explored quantitatively; identifying sensitive states, fluxes, and feedbacks in ecosystems; and identifying where current understanding is incomplete. Today, the need to anticipate consequences of rapid anthropogenic environmental changes (for example, climate and land...
Keywords20th Anniversary Ecosystem Modeling Ecosystem Ecology International Biological Program Simulate System Dynamic
- Canham CD, Cole JJ, Lauenroth WK, Eds. 2003. Models in ecosystem science. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Carpenter SR. 2003. The need for fast and frugal models. In: Canham CD, Cole JJ, Lauenroth WK, Eds. Models in ecosystem science. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p 455–60.Google Scholar
- Cottingham KL, Fey SB, Firtschie KJ, Trout-Haney, JV. 2017. Advancing ecosystem science by promoting greater use of theory and multiple research approaches in graduate education. Ecosystems. doi: 10.1007/s10021-016-0070-3.
- DeAngelis D, Yurek S. 2017. Spatially explicit modeling in ecology: a review. Ecosystems. doi: 10.1007/s10021-016-0066-z.
- Essington TE, Ciannelli L, Heppell SS, Levin PS, McClanahan TF, Michelli F, Plagányi EE, van Putten IE. 2017. Empiricism and modeling for marine fisheries—advancing an interdisciplinary science. Ecosystems. doi: 10.1007/s10021-016-0073-0.
- Golley FB. 1993. A history of the ecosystem concept in ecology. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Grimm V, Akyllon D, Railsback SF. 2017. Next-generation individual based models integrate biodiversity and ecosystems: yes we can, and yes we must. Ecosystems. doi: 10.1007/s10021-016-0071-2.
- Kingsland SE. 2005. The evolution of American ecology, 1890-2000. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Kinzig AP. 2017. On achieving balance. Ecosystems. doi: 10.1007/s10021-016-0074-z.
- LaDeau S, Han B, Rosi-Marshall E, Weathers K. 2017. The next decade of big data in ecosystem science. Ecosystems 20. doi: 10.1007/s10021-016-0075-y.
- Pastor J. 2017. Ecosystems ecology and evolutionary biology, a new frontier for experiments and models. Ecosystems. doi: 10.1007/s10021-016-0069-9.
- Peters DPC, Okin GS. 2017. A toolkit for ecosystem ecologists in the time of big science. Ecosystems. doi: 10.1007/s10021-016-0072-1.
- Rastetter EB. 2017. Modeling for understanding v. modeling for numbers. Ecosystems. doi: 10.1007/s10021-016-0067-y.
- Seidl R. 2017. To model or not to model, that is no longer the question for ecologists. Ecosystems. doi: 10.1007/s10021-016-0068-x.
- Turner MG. 2003. Modeling for synthesis and integration: forests, people, and riparian coarse woody debris. In: Canham CD, Cole JJ, Lauenroth WK, Eds. Models in ecosystem science. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p 83–110.Google Scholar