Representing Variable Habitat Quality in a Spatial Food Web Model
- 893 Downloads
Why are marine species where they are? The scientific community is faced with an urgent need to understand aquatic ecosystem dynamics in the context of global change. This requires development of scientific tools with the capability to predict how biodiversity, natural resources, and ecosystem services will change in response to stressors such as climate change and further expansion of fishing. Species distribution models and ecosystem models are two methodologies that are being developed to further this understanding. To date, these methodologies offer limited capabilities to work jointly to produce integrated assessments that take both food web dynamics and spatial-temporal environmental variability into account. We here present a new habitat capacity model as an implementation of the spatial-temporal model Ecospace of the Ecopath with Ecosim approach. The new model offers the ability to drive foraging capacity of species from the cumulative impacts of multiple physical, oceanographic, and environmental factors such as depth, bottom type, temperature, salinity, oxygen concentrations, and so on. We use a simulation modeling procedure to evaluate sampling characteristics of the new habitat capacity model. This development bridges the gap between envelope environmental models and classic ecosystem food web models, progressing toward the ability to predict changes in marine ecosystems under scenarios of global change and explicitly taking food web direct and indirect interactions into account.
Keywordsfood web model species distribution model ecopath ecospace habitat modeling foraging capacity model sampling simulation model
MC was funded by the European Commission through the Marie Curie Career Integration Grant Fellowships to the BIOWEB project and the Spanish National Program Ramon y Cajal. This study forms a contribution to the Spanish Research project ECOTRANS. VC acknowledges support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. We thank Tom Caruthers for discussions about simulation modeling procedures.
- Christensen V, Coll M, Buszowski J, Cheung W, Frölicher T, Steenbeek J, Stock CA, Watson R, Walters C. Submitted. The global ocean is an ecosystem: simulating marine life and fisheries. Glob Ecol Biogeogr; in review.Google Scholar
- Christensen V, Pauly D. 1993. Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 26, 390 p.Google Scholar
- Christensen V, Coll M, Piroddi C, Steenbeek J, Buszowski J, Pauly D. in press. Fish biomass in the world ocean: a century of decline. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. doi: 10.3354/meps10946.
- Christensen V, Walters C, Pauly D, Forrest R. 2008. Ecopath with Ecosim version 6. User guide—November 2008. Lenfest Ocean Futures Project 2008: 235 pp.Google Scholar
- Coll M, Bundy A, Shannon LJ. 2008. Ecosystem modelling using the Ecopath with Ecosim approach. In: Megrey B, Moksness E, Eds. Computers in fisheries research. 2nd edn. New York: Springer. p 225–91.Google Scholar
- Coll M, Piroddi C, Albouy C, Ben Rais Lasram F, Cheung W, Christensen V, Karpouzi V, Le Loc F, Mouillot D, Paleczny M, Palomares ML, Steenbeek J, Trujillo P, Watson R, Pauly D. 2012. The Mediterranean Sea under siege: spatial overlap between marine biodiversity, cumulative threats and marine reserves. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 21:465–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Halpern BS, Walbridge S, Selkoe KA, Kappel CV, Micheli F, D’Agrosa C, Bruno JF, Casey KS, Ebert C, Fox HE, Fujita R, Heinemann D, Lenihan HS, Madin EMP, Perry MT, Selig ER, Spalding M, Steneck R, Watson R. 2008. A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319:948–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heymans JJ, Coll M, Libralato S, Christensen V. 2012. Ecopath theory, modelling and application to coastal ecosystems. In: Mehta DBA, Ed. Treatise on estuarine and coastal science, Vol. 9.06p 93–113.Google Scholar
- Jackson JBC, Kirby MX, Berger WH, Bjorndal KA, Botsford LW, Bourque BJ, Bradbury RH, Cooke R, Erlandson J, Estes JA, Hughes TP, Kidwell S, Lange CB, Lenihan HS, Pandolfi JM, Peterson CH, Steneck RS, Tegner MJ, Warner RR. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293:629–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jennings S, Kaiser MJ. 1998. The effects of fishing on marine ecosystems. Adv Mar Biol 34:268–352.Google Scholar
- Mackinson S, Daskalov G, Heymans JJ, Neira S, Arancibia H, Zetina-Rejón M, Jiang H, Cheng HQ, Coll M, Arreguin-Sanchez F. 2009. Which forcing factors fit? Using ecosystem models to investigate the relative influence of fishing and changes in primary productivity on the dynamics of marine ecosystems. Ecol Model 220:2972–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Micheli F, Amarasekare P, Bascompte J, Gerber LR. 2004. Including species interactions in the design and evaluation of marine reserves: some insights from a predator-prey model. Bull Mar Sci 74:653–69.Google Scholar
- Sala OE, Chapin FS, Armesto JJ, Berlow E, Bloomfield J, Dirzo R, Huber-Sanwald E, Huenneke LF, Jackson RB, Kinzig A, Leemans R, Lodge DM, Mooney HA, Oesterheld M, Poff NL, Sykes MT, Walker BH, Walker M, Wall DH. 2000. Biodiversity—global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287:1770–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sukhdev PC. 2008. The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity. An interim report. Cambridge: Banson.Google Scholar
- Walters C. 2000. Impacts of dispersal, ecological interactions, and fishing effort dynamics on efficacy of marine protected areas: how large should protected areas be? Bull Mar Sci 66:745–57.Google Scholar
- Walters C, Christensen V, Walters W, Rose K. 2010. Representation of multistanza life histories in Ecospace models for spatial organization of ecosystem trophic interaction patterns. Bull Mar Sci 86:439–59.Google Scholar
- Walters C, Martell SJD, Christensen V, Mahmoudi B. 2008. An Ecosim model for exploring Gulf of Mexico ecosystem management options: implications of including multistanza life-history models for policy predictions. Bull Mar Sci 83:251–71.Google Scholar
- Walters CJ, Martell SJD. 2004. Fisheries ecology and management. Princeton, NJ (USA): Princeton University Press. pp 229–55.Google Scholar
- Wilting HC, Ahrens RNM, Neumann K, van den Berg M, Christensen V, ten Brink B. Scenarios for global fisheries: impacts on marine and terrestrial biodiversity. Global Environmental Change, in reviewGoogle Scholar