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Ecosystems

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 96–111 | Cite as

Watershed Deforestation and Down-Estuary Transformations Alter Sources, Transport, and Export of Suspended Particles in Panamanian Mangrove Estuaries

  • I. Valiela
  • M. Bartholomew
  • A. Giblin
  • J. Tucker
  • C. Harris
  • P. Martinetto
  • M. Otter
  • L. Camilli
  • T. Stone
Article

Abstract

We identified eight Panamanian watersheds in which conversion from wet tropical forest to pastures differed and assessed the effects of degree of deforestation, and down-estuary transformations, on the suspended particulate matter discharged from the watersheds, entering, traversing through mangrove estuaries, and emerging into coastal waters. Deforested watersheds discharged larger concentrations of suspended particulate matter, with lower % C and N, higher mineral content, and heavier isotopic signatures into fresh reaches of estuaries. Down-estuary, sediment entrainment increased non-organic content of particulates, and watershed-derived imprints of deforestation on composition of particulate matter were mostly erased by within-estuary transformations. Isotopic signatures of C, N, and S in particulate matter demonstrated strong land-sea couplings, and indicated that the direction of the coupling was asymmetrical, with terrestrial and estuarine sources delivering particulate materials to coastal waters and sediments. Mangrove estuaries therefore both act as powerful modulators of human activities on land, while also exporting particulate materials to sea.

Keywords

land–sea coupling mangrove forests stable isotopes coastal sediment carbon nitrogen sulfur tropical wet forest 

Supplementary material

10021_2013_9709_MOESM1_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 6017 kb)
10021_2013_9709_MOESM2_ESM.tif (9.2 mb)
Figure SI 1 Sampling stations 1-9, occupied in sampling trips between 2009 to 2012, from Rio Limon, the watershed-estuary system with 92% forest cover (Table 1). Sample locations varied to capture salinity gradient and exiting water; some points are overlapping, and do not show as separate samplings. Sampling points overlaid on Quickbird imagery acquired April 5, 2003. Specific dates and latitude and longitude for each station are provided in Supplementary Information in Valiela and others (2013). (TIFF 9383 kb)
10021_2013_9709_MOESM3_ESM.tif (8.4 mb)
Figure SI 2 Sampling stations 1-9, occupied in sampling trips between 2009 to 2012, from Rio Manglarito, the watershed-estuary system with 91% forest cover (Table 1). Sample locations varied to capture salinity gradient and exiting water; some points are overlapping, and do not show as separate samplings. Sampling points overlaid on Quickbird imagery acquired April 5, 2003. Specific dates and latitude and longitude for each station are provided in Supplementary Information in Valiela and others (2013). (TIFF 8638 kb)
10021_2013_9709_MOESM4_ESM.tif (8.4 mb)
Figure SI 3 Sampling stations 1-9, occupied in sampling trips between 2009 to 2012, from Rio Pixvae, a watershed-estuary system with 73% forest cover (Table 1). Sample locations varied to capture salinity gradient and exiting water; some points are overlapping, and do not show as separate samplings. Sampling points overlaid on Quickbird imagery acquired April 5, 2003. Specific dates and latitude and longitude for each station are provided in Supplementary Information in Valiela and others (2013). (TIFF 8629 kb)
10021_2013_9709_MOESM5_ESM.tif (9.2 mb)
Figure SI 4 Sampling stations 1-9, occupied in sampling trips between 2009 to 2012, from Rio Luis, a watershed-estuary system with 73% forest cover (Table 1). Sample locations varied to capture salinity gradient and exiting water; some points are overlapping, and do not show as separate samplings. Sampling points overlaid on Quickbird imagery acquired April 5, 2003. Specific dates and latitude and longitude for each station are provided in Supplementary Information in Valiela and others (2013). (TIFF 9470 kb)
10021_2013_9709_MOESM6_ESM.tif (8.7 mb)
Figure SI 5 Sampling stations 1-9, occupied in sampling trips between 2009 to 2012, from Rio Chamuscado, the watershed-estuary system with 66% forest cover (Table 1). Sample locations varied to capture salinity gradient and exiting water; some points are overlapping, and do not show as separate samplings. Sampling points overlaid on Quickbird imagery acquired April 5, 2003. Specific dates and latitude and longitude for each station are provided in Supplementary Information in Valiela and others (2013). (TIFF 8940 kb)
10021_2013_9709_MOESM7_ESM.tif (8.5 mb)
Figure SI 6 Sampling stations 1-9, occupied in sampling trips during 2009 to 2012, from Rio de la Mona, the watershed-estuary system with 47% forest cover (Table 1). Sample locations varied to capture salinity gradient and exiting water; some points are overlapping, and do not show as separate samplings. Sampling points overlaid on Quickbird imagery acquired April 5, 2003. Specific dates and latitude and longitude for each station are provided in Supplementary Information in Valiela and others (2013). (TIFF 8658 kb)
10021_2013_9709_MOESM8_ESM.tif (9.2 mb)
Figure SI 7 Sampling stations 1-9, occupied in sampling trips between 2009 to 2012, from Rio Salmonete, the watershed-estuary system with 29% forest cover (Table 1). Sample locations varied to capture salinity gradient and exiting water; some points are overlapping, and do not show as separate samplings. Sampling points overlaid on Quickbird imagery acquired April 5, 2003. Specific dates and latitude and longitude for each station are provided in Supplementary Information in Valiela and others (2013). (TIFF 9430 kb)
10021_2013_9709_MOESM9_ESM.tif (4.9 mb)
Figure SI 8 Sampling stations 1-9, occupied during sampling trips between 2009 to 2012, from Rio Grande, the watershed-estuary system with 23% forest cover (Table 1). Sample locations varied to capture salinity gradient and exiting water; some points are overlapping, and do not show as separate samplings. Sampling points overlaid on Aster satellite imagery acquired February 7, 2006. Specific dates and latitude and longitude for each station are provided in Supplementary Information in Valiela and others (2013). (TIFF 5053 kb)
10021_2013_9709_MOESM10_ESM.tif (518 kb)
Figure SI 9 Comparisons of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and potential sources, including sediments from mangrove estuaries, mangrove leaves, and large particulate matter (POM) collected from water ebbing the estuaries. The data shown stratified into three bins of % forest cover on the watersheds, and three bins of salinity. (TIFF 518 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Valiela
    • 1
  • M. Bartholomew
    • 1
  • A. Giblin
    • 1
  • J. Tucker
    • 1
  • C. Harris
    • 1
  • P. Martinetto
    • 2
  • M. Otter
    • 1
  • L. Camilli
    • 3
  • T. Stone
    • 4
  1. 1.Marine Biological Laboratory, The Ecosystems CenterWoods HoleUSA
  2. 2.Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y TécnicasUniversidad Nacional de Mar del PlataMar del PlataArgentina
  3. 3.Biology DepartmentWoods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods HoleUSA
  4. 4.Woods Hole Research CenterFalmouthUSA

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