Bijoor NS, Czimczik CI, Pataki DE, Billings SA. 2008. Effects of temperature and fertilization on nitrogen cycling and community composition of an urban lawn. Glob Change Biol 14:2119–31.
Cadenasso ML, Pickett TA, Schwarz K. 2007. Spatial heterogeneity in urban ecosystems: reconceptualizing land cover and a framework for classification. Front Ecol Environ 5(2):80–8.
Carrow RN. 1989. Managing turf for maximum root growth. Golf Course Management (July).
Cleveland CC, Liptzin D. 2007. C:N:P stoichiometry in soil: is there a “Redfield ratio” for the microbial biomass? Biogeochemistry 85(3):235–52.
Compton JE, Boone RD. 2000. Long-term impacts of agriculture on soil carbon and nitrogen in New England forests. Ecology 81(8):2314–30.
Craul PJ, Klein CJ. 1980. Characterization of streetside soils of Syracuse, New York. METRIA 3:88–101.
De Kimpe CR, Morel JL. 2000. Urban soil management: a growing concern. Soil Sci 165:31–40.
Dietz ME, Clausen JC. 2006. Saturation to improve pollutant retention in a rain garden. Environ Sci Technol 40:1335–40.
Easton ZM, Petrovic AM. 2008. Determining nitrogen loading rates based on land use in an urban watershed. In: Nett MT, Carroll MJ, Horgan BP, Petrovic AM, Eds. The fate of nutrients and pesticides in the urban environment. ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 997. Washington (DC): American Chemical Society. p 19–42.
Fulton W, Pendall R, Nguyen M, Harrison A. 2001. Who sprawls the most? How growth patterns differ across the United States. Washington (DC): The Brookings Institution. Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy.
Galbraith JM, Bryant RB, Russell-Anelli JM. 1999. Major kinds of humanly altered soils. In: Kimble JM, Ahrens RJ, Bryant RB, Eds. Classification, correlation, and management of anthropogenic soils: Proceedings. 1998. Sept 21–Oct 2; Nevada and California: USDA-NRCS. Lincoln (NE): National Soil Survey Center. p 115–19.
Gebhart DL, Johnson HB, Mayeux HA, Polley HW. 1994. The CRP increases soil organic carbon. J Soil Water Conserv 49:488–92.
Gee GW, Bauder JW. 1986. Particle size analysis. In: Klute A, Ed. Methods of soil analysis, part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods. 2nd edn. Madison (WI): American Society of Agronomy. p 383–411.
Goetz SJ, Jantz CA, Prince SD, Smith AJ, Wright R, Varlyguin D. 2004. Integrated analysis of ecosystem interactions with land use change: the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In: DeFries RS, Asner GP, Houghton RA, Eds. Ecosystems and land use change geophysical monograph series. Washington (DC): American Geophysical Union. p 263–75.
Golubiewski NE. 2006. Urbanization increases grassland carbon pools: effects of landscaping in Colorado’s front range. Ecol Appl 16(2):555–71.
Groffman PM, Pouyat RV. 2009. Methane uptake in urban forests and lawns. Environ Sci Technol 43(14):5229–35.
Groffman PM, Law NL, Belt KT, Band LE, Fisher GT. 2004. Nitrogen fluxes and retention in urban watershed ecosystems. Ecosystems 7:393–403.
Groffman PM, Pouyat RV, Cadenasso ML, Zipperer WC, Szlavecz K, Yesilonis IC, Band LE, Brush GS. 2006. Land use context and natural soil controls on plant community composition and soil nitrogen and carbon dynamics in urban and rural forests. For Ecol Manag 236(2–3):177–92.
Groffman PM, Williams CO, Pouyat RV, Band LE, Yesilonis IC. 2009. Nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide flux in urban forests and grasslands. J Environ Qual 38(5):1846–60.
Hall SJ, Huber D, Grimm NB. 2008. Soil N2O and NO emissions from an arid, urban ecosystem. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 113. doi:10.1029/0102007jg0000523.
Hu S, Chapin FS 3rd, Firestone MK, Field CB, Chiariello NR. 2000. Nitrogen limitation of microbial decomposition in a grassland under elevated CO2. Nature 409:188–91.
Jobbagy EG, Jackson RB. 2000. The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation. Ecol Appl 10(2):423–36.
Kalbitz K, Solinger S, Park JH, Michalzik B, Matzner E. 2000. Controls on the dynamics of dissolved organic matter in soils: a review. Soil Sci 165(4):277–304.
Kaye JP, Burke IC, Mosier AR, Guerschman JP. 2004. Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from urban soils to the atmosphere. Ecol Appl 14:975–81.
Kaye JP, McCulley RL, Burke IC. 2005. Carbon fluxes, nitrogen cycling, and soil microbial communities in adjacent urban, native and agricultural ecosystems. Glob Change Biol 11:575–87.
Kaye JP, Groffman PM, Grimm NB, Baker LA, Pouyat RV. 2006. A distinct urban biogeochemistry? Trends Ecol Evol 21:192–9.
Law NL, Band LE, Grove JM. 2004. Nitrogen input from residential lawn care practices in suburban watersheds in Baltimore County, MD. J Environ Manag 47(5):737–55.
Maryland, Department of Planning. 2007. Assessment and taxation database. In: Maryland property view CD-ROM. Annapolis (MD).
Milesi C, Running SW, Elvidge CD, Dietz JB, Tuttle BT, Nemani RR. 2005. Mapping and modeling the biogeochemical cycling of turf grasses in the United States. Environ Manage 36(3):426–38.
National Climactic Data Center, United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2009. Online Climate Data Directory. http://lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/climatedata.html.
NRCS. 1976. Soil survey of Baltimore County, Maryland. Washington (DC): Natural Resource Conservation Service.
NRCS. 1998. Soil survey of City of Baltimore, Maryland. Washington (DC): Natural Resource Conservation Service.
Petrovic AM. 1990. The fate of nitrogenous fertilizers applied to turfgrass. J Environ Qual 19:1–14.
Pickett STA, Cadenasso ML, Grove JM, Groffman PM, Band LE, Boone CG, Burch WR, Grimmond CSB, Hom J, Jenkins JC, Law NL, Nilon CH, Pouyat RV, Szlavecz K, Warren PS, Wilson MA. 2008. Beyond urban legends: an emerging framework of urban ecology, as illustrated by the Baltimore ecosystem study. Bioscience 58:139–50.
Post WM, Kwon KC. 2000. Soil carbon sequestration and land use change: processes and potential. Glob Change Biol 6:317–27.
Post WM, Emanuel WR, Zinke PJ, Stangenberger AG. 1982. Soil carbon pools and world life zones. Nature 298:156–9.
Pouyat RV, Yesilonis ID, Nowak DJ. 2006. Carbon storage by urban soils in the United States. J Environ Qual 35(4):1566–75.
Pouyat RV, Yesilonis I, Russell-Anelli J, Neerchal NK. 2007. Soil chemical and physical properties that differentiate urban land use and cover. Soil Sci Soc Am J 71:1010–19.
Pouyat RV, Yesilonis ID, Golubiewski NE. 2009. A comparison of soil organic carbon stocks between residential turf grass and native soil. Urban Ecosyst 12:45–62.
Pouyat RV, Szlavecz K, Yesilonis ID, Groffman PM, Schwarz K. 2010. Chemical, physical and biological characteristics of urban soils. In: Aitkenhead-Peterson J, Volder A, Eds. Urban ecosystem ecology. Agronomy Mongraph 55. Madison (WI): American Society of Agronomy.
Qian Y, Follett RF. 2002. Assessing soil carbon sequestration in turfgrass systems using long-term soil testing data. Agron J 94:930–5.
Qian YL, Bandaranayake W, Parton WJ, Mecham B, Harivandi MA, Mosier AR. 2003. Long-term effects of clipping and nitrogen management in turfgrass on soil organic carbon and nitrogen dynamics: the CENTURY model simulation. J Environ Qual 32:1694–700.
Raciti SM, Groffman PM, Fahey TJ. 2008. Nitrogen retention in urban lawns and forests. Ecol Appl 18(7):1615–26.
SAS Institute. 2009. JMP, Version 8. SAS Institute Inc., Cary (NC), 1989–2009.
Short JR, Fanning DS, Foss JE, Patterson JC. 1986. Soils of the Mall in Washington, DC: I statistical summary of properties. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:699–705.
Showstack R. 2010. Scientists sift through urban soils. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 91(20):171.
Tilman D, Knops JMH. 2000. Dynamics of soil nitrogen and carbon accumulation for 61 years after agricultural abandonment. Ecology 81(1):88–98.
Townsend-Small A, Czimczik CI. 2010. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf. Geophys Res Lett 37: L0270710.0271029/0272009gl0041675.
Trumbore SE. 1997. Potential responses of soil organic carbon to global environmental change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94(16):8284–91.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2008. World urbanization prospects: The 2007 Revision. United Nations (NY). http://www.un.org/esa/population/unpop.htm.
Wehling MA. 2001. Land use/land cover change from 1915 to 1999 in the Gwynns Falls Watershed, Baltimore County, Maryland: creation of a suburban social ecology. [Dissertation]. Athens (OH): Department of Geography, Ohio University.
Wu L. 1985. Matching turfgrass irrigation to turfgrass root depth. Calif Turfgrass Cult 35(1–4):1–2.
Zhu WX, Dillard ND, Grimm NB. 2004. Urban nitrogen biogeochemistry: status and processes in green retention basins. Biogeochemistry 71:177–96.