, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 322–335 | Cite as

Patterns of Total Ecosystem Carbon Storage with Changes in Soil Temperature in Boreal Black Spruce Forests

  • E. S. KaneEmail author
  • J. G. Vogel


To understand how carbon (C) pools in boreal ecosystems may change with warming, we measured above- and belowground C pools and C increment along a soil temperature gradient across 16 mature upland black spruce (Picea mariana Mill. [B·S.P]) forests in interior Alaska. Total spruce C stocks (stand and root C) increased from 1.3 to 8.5 kg C m−2 with increasing soil summed degree-days (SDD > 0°C at 10 cm) across sites, whereas soil C stocks decreased from 11.9 to 6.3 kg C m−2 with increasing SDD. Spruce C and organic soil C, which combined represent maximum C accrual since the last fire, increased with soil heat sums until 600 SDD, and then plateaued with increasing SDD across sites (R 2 = 0.61, P = 0.002; second-order polynomial regression). The sum of soil and total spruce C (total ecosystem C, TEC) reached its maximum in the middle-range of soil temperatures measured (approximately 600 SDD), and was lower in the coolest (139 SDD) and the warmest (914 SDD) forests. The opposing trends between above- and belowground pools resulted in C shifting from the soil to spruce biomass with warmer soil temperatures. A shift in C distribution from below- to aboveground pools, as temperature increases, has implications for the vulnerability of C lost in boreal forest wildfires. The strongly negative relationship between surface mineral soil C stocks and increasing temperatures warrants further research into the potential loss of deep mineral soil C stocks with continued warming, especially in forests presently underlain with permafrost.


organic soil carbon storage biomass climate change fire productivity decomposition permafrost black spruce 



We appreciate David Valentine for academic support and advice during earlier projects. Many sites described herein are maintained by the Bonanza Creek LTER site (funded jointly by NSF grant DEB-0423442 and USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station grant PNW01-JV11261952-231). Financial support also came from the Center for Climate Change Research (UAF), a Department of Energy grant to Edward Schuur and Vogel (NAU DE-FC02-06ER64159), and a Center for Water Sciences fellowship (MSU) to E. S. Kane. We thank Andrew Balser, Carolyn Rosner, and Mike Hay for help with site selection, GPS, and insolation calculations. Jess Guritz helped greatly with biomass harvests. Brian Charlton helped in obtaining spruce litter. Martin Lavoie, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Edward Schuur, Jenny Schaefer, Wendy Loya, and Jon O’Donnell provided helpful comments and review.


  1. Allan RJ. 1969. Clay mineralogy and geochemistry of soils and sediments with permafrost in interior Alaska. PhD Thesis, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, p 5–20, 64–70Google Scholar
  2. Alvarez-Uria P, Korner C. 2007. Low temperature limits of root growth in deciduous and evergreen temperate tree species. Funct Ecol 21:211–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barber VA, Juday GP, Finney BP. 2000. Reduced growth of Alaskan white spruce in the twentieth century from temperature-induced drought stress. Nature 405:668–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Birdsey RA, Lewis GM. 2003. Current and historical trends in use, management, and disturbance of U.S. forestlands. Kimble JM, Heath LS, Birdsey RA, Lal R. editors. The potential of U.S. forest soils to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. Boca Raton, FL: CRC press, pp 35–46.Google Scholar
  5. Black RA, Bliss LC. 1980. Reproductive ecology of Picea mariana. (Mill). BSP., at the tree line near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. Ecol Monogr 50:331–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bockheim JG, Hinkel KM. 2007. The importance of “deep” organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils of arctic Alaska. Soil Sci Soc Am J 71:1889–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bockheim JG, Everett LR, Hinkel KM, Nelson FE, Brown J. 1999. Soil organic carbon storage and distribution in Arctic Tundra, Barrow, Alaska. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:934–40.Google Scholar
  8. Bonan GB. 1992. Soil temperature as an ecological factor in boreal forests. Shugart HH, Leemans R, Bonan GB. editors. A systems analysis of the global boreal forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 126–43.Google Scholar
  9. Bond-Lamberty B, Wang C, Gower ST. 2002. Aboveground and belowground biomass and sapwood area allometric equations for six boreal tree species of northern Manitoba. Can J For Res 32:1441–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bond-Lamberty B, Wang CK, Gower ST. 2004. Net primary production and net ecosystem production of a boreal black spruce wildfire chronosequence. Glob Chang Biol 10:473–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bond-Lamberty B, Wang CK, Gower ST. 2005. Spatiotemporal measurement and modeling of stand-level boreal forest soil temperatures. Agric For Meteorol 131:27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bond-Lamberty B, Peckham SD, Ahl DE, Gower ST. 2007. Fire as the dominant driver of central Canadian boreal forest carbon balance. Nature 450:89–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bronson DR, Gower ST, Tanner M, Linder S, Van Herk I. 2008. Response of soil surface CO2 flux in a boreal forest to ecosystem warming. Glob Chang Biol 14:856–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Callesen I, Liski J, Raulund-Rasmussen K, Olsson MT, Tau-Strand L, Vesterdal L, Westman CJ. 2003. Soil carbon stores in Nordic well-drained forest soils—relationships with climate and texture class. Glob Chang Biol 9:358–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chapin FS III, Shaver GR, Giblin AE, Nadelhoffer KJ, Laundre JA. 1995. Responses of arctic tundra to experimental and observed changes in climate. Ecology 76:694–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chapin FS III, Yarie J, Van Cleve K, Viereck LA (2006) The conceptual basis of LTER studies in the Alaskan boreal forest. In: Chapin FS III, Oswood MW, Van Cleve K, Viereck L, Verbyla D (eds) Alaska’s changing boreal forest. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp 3–11.Google Scholar
  17. Chen WJ, Chen JM, Price DT, Cihlar J. 2002. Effects of stand age on net primary productivity of boreal black spruce forests in Ontario, Canada. Can J For Res 32:833–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davidson EA, Janssens IA. 2006. Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change. Nature 440:165–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dioumaeva I, Trumbore S, Schuur EAG, Goulden ML, Litvak M, Hirsch AI. 2003. Temperature dependence of decomposition of peat from an upland boreal forest. J Geophys Res 108:8222–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dyrness CT. 1982. Control of depth to permafrost and soil temperature by the forest floor in black spruce/feathermoss communities. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Research Note. PNW-396Google Scholar
  21. Flannigan MD, Logan KA, Amiro BD, Skinner WR, Stocks BJ. 2005. Future area burned in Canada. Clim Change 72:1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gillett NP, Weaver AJ, Zwiers FW, Flannigan MD. 2004. Detecting the effect of climate change on Canadian forest fires. Geophys Res Lett 31:18.Google Scholar
  23. Goulden ML, Wofsy SC, Harden JW, Trumbore SE, Crill PM, Gower ST, Fries T, Daube BC, Fan SM, Sutton DJ, Bazzaz A, Munter JW. 1998. Sensitivity of boreal forest carbon balance to warming. Science 279:214–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gower ST, Vogel JG, Norman JM, Kucharik CJ, Steele SJ, Stow TK. 1997. Carbon distribution and aboveground net primary production in aspen, jack pine, and black spruce stands in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. J Geophys Res 102:29029–41Google Scholar
  25. Gower ST, Krankina O, Olson RJ, Apps M, Linder S, Wang C. 2001. Net primary production and carbon allocation patterns of boreal forest ecosystems. Ecol Appl 11:1395–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Greene DF, Macdonald SE, Haeussler S, Domenicano S, Noel J, Jayen K, Charron I, Gauthier S, Hunt S, Gielau ET, Bergeron Y, Swift L. 2007. The reduction of organic-layer depth by wildfire in the North American boreal forest and its effect on tree recruitment by seed. Can J For Res 37:1012–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Harden JW, Trumbore SE, Stocks BJ, Hirsch A, Gower ST, O’Neill KP, Kasischke ES. 2000. The role of fire the boreal carbon budget. Glob Chang Biol 6:174–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harden JW, Manies KL, Turetsky MR, Neff JC. 2006. Effects of wildfire and permafrost on soil organic matter and soil climate in interior Alaska. Glob Chang Biol 12:2391–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hollingsworth TN, Schuur EAG, Chapin III FS, Walker MD. 2008. Plant community composition as a predictor of regional soil carbon storage in Alaskan boreal black spruce ecosystems. Ecosystems. DOI:  10.1007/s10021-008-9147-y.Google Scholar
  30. Hom JL. 1986. Investigations into some of the major controls on the productivity of a black spruce. Picea mariana (Mill) BSP forest ecosystem in the interior of Alaska: photosynthesis, nutrient use, soil temperatures, moss microclimate. PhD Thesis, Forest Sciences, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, p 160Google Scholar
  31. Hyvonen R, Persson T, Andersson S, Olsson B, Agren GI, Linder S. 2007. Impact of long-term nitrogen addition on carbon stocks in trees and soils in northern Europe. Biogeochemistry. DOI  10.1007/s10533-007-9121-3.Google Scholar
  32. IPCC. 2007. Summary for policymakers. In climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  33. Jarvis PG, Massheder JM, Hale SE, Moncrieff JB, Rayment M, Scott SL. 1997. Seasonal variation of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy exchanges of a boreal black spruce forest. J Geophys Res 102:28953–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Johnson MG, Kern JS. 2003. Quantifying the organic carbon held in forested soils of the United States and Puerto Rico. Kimble JM, Heath LS, Birdsey RA, Lal R. editors. The potential of U.S. forest soils to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. Boca Raton, FL: CRC press, pp 47–72.Google Scholar
  35. Johnstone J, Chapin F. 2006. Effects of soil burn severity on post-fire tree recruitment in boreal forest. Ecosystems 9:14–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnstone JF, Chapin FS, Foote J, Kemmett S, Price K, Viereck L. 2004. Decadal observations of tree regeneration following fire in boreal forests. Can J For Res 34:267–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kane ES, Valentine DW, Schuur EAG, Dutta K. 2005. Soil carbon stabilization along climate and stand productivity gradients in black spruce forests of interior Alaska. Can J For Res 35:2118–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kane ES, Valentine DW, Michaelson GJ, Fox JD, Ping CL. 2006. Controls over pathways of carbon efflux from soils along climate and black spruce productivity gradients in interior Alaska. Soil Biol Biochem 38:1438–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kane ES, Kasischke ES, Valentine DW, Turetsky MR, McGuire AD. 2007. Topographic influences on wildfire consumption of soil organic carbon in interior Alaska: implications for black carbon accumulation. J Geophys Res 112:G03017. doi: 10.1029/2007JG000458
  40. Kasischke ES, Johnstone JF. 2005. Variation in postfire organic layer thickness in a black spruce forest complex in interior Alaska and its effects on soil temperature and moisture. Can J For Res 35:2164–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kasischke ES, Turetsky MR. 2006. Recent changes in the fire regime across the North American boreal region —spatial and temporal patterns of burning across Canada and Alaska. Geophys Res Lett 33:9.Google Scholar
  42. Kasischke ES, O'Neill KP, French NHF, Borgeau-Chavez LL. 2000. Controls on patterns of biomass burning in Alaskan boreal forests. Kasischke ES, Stocks BJ. editors. Fire, climate change and carbon cycling in the boreal forests. New York, NY: Springer, pp 173–96.Google Scholar
  43. Kleja DB, Svensson M, Majdi H, Jansson P-E, Langvall O, Bergkvist B, Johansson M-B, Weslien P, Truusb L, Lindroth A, Agren GI. 2007. Pools and fluxes of carbon in three Norway spruce ecosystems along a climatic gradient in Sweden. Biogeochemistry. DOI  10.1007/s10533-007-9136-9.Google Scholar
  44. Kumar L. 1997. Solar radiation modelling in Arc/Info GRID and its use in eucalypt species delineation. Proceedings 11th Annual Australian ESRI & ERDAS Users Conference, p 55–64Google Scholar
  45. Lecomte N, Simard M, Fenton N, Bergeron Y. 2006. Fire severity and long-term ecosystem biomass dynamics in coniferous boreal forests of eastern Canada. Ecosystems 9:1215–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Liski J, Westman CJ. 1997. Carbon storage in forest soil of Finland. 1. Effect of thermoclimate. Biogeochemistry 36:239–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mack MC, Treseder KK, Manies KL, Harden JW, Schuur EAG, Vogel JG, Randerson JT, Chapin FS. 2008. Recovery of aboveground plant biomass and productivity after fire in mesic and dry black spruce forests of interior alaska. Ecosystems 11:209–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McGuire AD, Chapin FS, Walsh JE, Wirth C. 2006. Integrated regional changes in arctic climate feedbacks: implications for the global climate system. Annu Rev Environ Resour 31:61–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McKane RB, Rastetter EB, Shaver GR, Nadelhoffer KJ, Giblin AE, Laundre JA, Chapin FS. 1997. Climatic effects on tundra carbon storage inferred from experimental data and a model. Ecology 78:1170–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meunier C, Sirois L, Begin Y. 2007. Climate and Picea mariana seed maturation relationships: a multi-scale perspective. Ecol Monogr 77:361–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Oliver CD, Larson BC. 1996. Forest Stand Dynamics. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp 331–63.Google Scholar
  52. O’Neill KP, Kasischke ES, Richter DD. 2003. Seasonal and decadal patterns of soil carbon uptake and emission along an age-sequence of burned black spruce stands in interior Alaska. J Geophys Res 108:11–5.Google Scholar
  53. Paré D, Van Cleve K. 1992. Soil nutrient availability and relationships with aboveground biomass production on postharvest upland white spruce sites in interior Alaska. Can J For Res 23:1223–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pewe TL, Reger RD. 1983. Guidebook to permafrost and quaternary geology along the Richardson and Glenn Highways between Fairbanks and Anchorage. Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys Department of Natural Resources, State of Alaska.Google Scholar
  55. Ping CL, Michaelson GJ, Kimble JM. 1997. Carbon storage along a latitudinal transect in Alaska. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 49:235–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ping CL, Boone RD, Clark MH, Packee EC, Swanson DK. 2006. State factor control of soil formation in interior Alaska. Chapin FS, Oswood MW, Van Cleve K, Viereck LA, Verbyla DL. editors. Alaska’s changing boreal forest. New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc, pp 21–38.Google Scholar
  57. Ratkowsky DA, Olley J, McMeekin TA, Ball A. 1982. Relationship between temperature and growth rate of bacterial cultures. J Bacteriol 149:1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Reed D, Nagel L. 2003. Carbon pools and storage along a temperate to boreal transect in northern Scots pine. Pinus sylvestris forests. Pol J Ecol 51:545–52.Google Scholar
  59. Reineke L. 1933. Perfecting a stand-density index for even-aged forests. J Agric Res 46:627–38.Google Scholar
  60. Santantonio D, Herman RK, Overton WS. 1977. Root biomass studies in forest ecosystems. Pedobiologia 17:1–31.Google Scholar
  61. Saarsalmi A, Starr M, Hokkanen T, Ukonmaanaho L, Kukkola M, Nöjd P, Sievänen R. 2007. Predicting annual canopy litterfall production for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands. For Ecol Manag 242: 578–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Serreze MC, Walsh JE, Chapin FS III, Osterkamp TE, Dyurgerov M, Romanovsky VE, Oechel WC, Morison J, Zhang T, Barry RG. 2000. Observational evidence of recent changes in the northern high-latitude environment. Clim Change 46:159–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sharratt BS. 1997. Thermal conductivity and water retention of a black spruce forest floor. Soil Sci 162: 576–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shaver GR, Billings WD, Chapin FS, Giblin AE, Nadelhoffer KJ, Oechel WC, Rastetter EB. 1992. Global change and the carbon balance of Arctic ecosystems. BioScience 42:433–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Simard M, Lecomte N, Bergeron Y, Bernier PY, Pare D. 2007. Forest productivity decline caused by successional paludification of boreal soils. Ecol Appl 17:1619–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Soil Survey Staff. 2006. Keys to soil taxonomy, 10th edn. Washington, DC: NRCSGoogle Scholar
  67. Strömgren M. 2001. Soil-surface CO2 flux and growth in boreal Norway spruce stand: effects of soil warming and nutrition. Department of Production Ecology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, p 87.Google Scholar
  68. Strömgren M, Linder S. 2002. Effects of nutrition and soil warming on stemwood production in a boreal Norway spruce stand. Glob Chang Biol 8:1195–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Trofymow JA, Moore TR, Titus B, Prescott C, Morrison I, Siltanen M, Smith S, Fyles J, Wein R, CamirT C, Duschene L, Kozak L, Kranabetter M, Visser S. 2002. Rates of litter decomposition over 6 years in Canadian forests: influence of litter quality and climate. Can J For Res 32:789–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tryon PR, Chapin FS III. 1983. Temperature control over root growth and root biomass in taiga forest trees. Can J For Res 13:827–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Van Cleve K, Viereck LA. 1981. Forest succession in relation to nutrient cycling in boreal forest of Alaska. In Forest succession: concepts and application. Edited by West DC, Shugart HH, Botkin DB. Springer, New York. pp. 203–8.Google Scholar
  72. Van Cleve K, Barney R, Schlentner R. 1981. Evidence of temperature control of production and nutrient cycling in two interior Alaska black spruce ecosystems. Can J For Res 11:258–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Van Cleve K, Dyrness CT, Viereck LA, Fox J, Chapin FS, Oechel W. 1983a. Taiga ecosystems of interior Alaska. Bioscience 33:39–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Van Cleve K, Oliver L, Schlentner R, Viereck LA, Dyrness CT. 1983b. Productivity and nutrient cycling in taiga forest ecosystems. Can J For Res 13:747–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Van Cleve K, Oechel WC, Hom JL. 1990. Response of black spruce. Picea mariana ecosystems to soil temperature modification in interior Alaska. Can J For Res 20:1530–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Van Cleve, K., F. S. Chapin III, C. T. Dyrness, and L. A. Viereck. 1991. Element cycling in taiga forest: state-factor control. BioScience 41:78–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Van Wagner CE. 1987. Development and structure of the Canadian forest fire weather index system. Ontario Forest Technical Report 35. Canadian Forest Service, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  78. Viereck LA. 1970. Forest succession and soil development next to Chena River in interior Alaska. Arct Antarct Alp Res 2: 1–26.Google Scholar
  79. Viereck LA, Van Cleve K. 1984. Some aspects of vegetation and temperature relationships in the Alaska Taiga. In: McBeath JH, Ed. The potential effects of carbon dioxide-induced climatic changes in Alaska. Fairbanks: School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska. p 129–42, Misc. Pub. 83-1Google Scholar
  80. Viereck LA, Johnston WF. 1990. Black Spruce. Burns RM, Honkala BH. editors. Silvics of North America, vol 1. USDA-Forest Service, District of Columbia, p 227–37.Google Scholar
  81. Vogel JG. 2004. Carbon cycling in three mature black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) forests in interior Alaska. PhD Dissertation, University of Alaska, FairbanksGoogle Scholar
  82. Vogel JG, Valentine DW, Ruess RW. 2005. Soil and root respiration in mature Alaskan black spruce forests that vary in soil organic matter decomposition rates. Can J For Res 35:161–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vogel JG, Bond-Lamberty BP, E.A.G S, Gower ST, Mack MM, O’Connell KEB, Valentine DW, Ruess RW. 2008. Carbon allocation in boreal black spruce forests across regions varying in soil temperature and precipitation. Glob Chang Biol 14:1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang C, Bond-Lamberty B, Gower ST. 2003. Carbon distribution of a well- and poorly-drained black spruce fire chronosequence. Glob Chang Biol 9:1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Way DA, Sage RF. 2008. Elevated growth temperatures reduce the carbon gain of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.]. Glob Chang Biol 14:624–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. White JD, Koepke BE, Swanson DK. 2002. Soil survey of North Star area, Alaska. Natural Resource Conservation Service. USDA.Google Scholar
  87. Wilmking M, Juday GP, Barber VA, Zald HSJ. 2004. Recent climate warming forces contrasting growth responses of white spruce at treeline in Alaska through temperature thresholds. Glob Chang Biol 10:1724–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yarie J. 1981. Forest fire cycles and life tables: a case study from interior Alaska. Can J For Res 11:554–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yarie J, Billings S. 2002. Carbon balance of the taiga forest within Alaska: present and future. Can J For Res 32:757–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yarie J, Van Cleve K. 1986. Interaction of temperature, moisture, and soil chemistry in controlling nutrient cycling and ecosystem development in the taiga of Alaska. Van Cleve K, Chapin FS III, Flanagan PW, Viereck LA, Dyrness CT. editors. Forest ecosystems in the Alaskan taiga: a synthesis of structure and function. New York, NY: Springer, pp 160–89.Google Scholar
  91. Yarie J, Kane ES, Mack MM. 2007. Aboveground biomass equations for the trees of interior Alaska. Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Bulletin 115. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, University of Alaska. p 15Google Scholar
  92. Yoshikawa K, Bolton WR, Romanovsky VE, Fukuda M, Hinzman LD. 2002. Impacts of wildfire on the permafrost in the boreal forests of interior Alaska—art. no. 8148. J Geophys Res 108:8148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Water SciencesMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations