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Revisiting ISO 14001 diffusion among national terrains: panel data evidence from OECD countries and the BRIICS

Abstract

Being one of the primary soft-voluntary environmental policy instruments, ISO 14001 has been studied from a number of diverse perspectives and disciplines. Nevertheless, it is only few assessments that have attempted to shed light on variations in the diffusion ISO 14001 certification among countries in terms of national factors and macroeconomic conditions that may stimulate relevant implementation patterns. We employ a 1999–2017 annual time-series that yields a panel dataset of 33 countries, out of which 27 are OECD countries, complemented by the BRIICS. Applying the appropriate static and dynamic econometric specifications, the EKC hypothesis is not rejected in all the cases in static and dynamic specifications. Our turning points are in all cases within the sample ranging from $20,812 to $52,023.

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Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    For theoretical underpinnings justifying the existence of an inverted U-shape and N-shape relationships, see Halkos (2012) and Halkos (2013).

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Co-Editor Professor Shunsuke Managi and the reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments and recommendations. Any remaining errors are solely the authors’ responsibility.

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Correspondence to George Halkos.

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Halkos, G., Nomikos, S. & Skouloudis, A. Revisiting ISO 14001 diffusion among national terrains: panel data evidence from OECD countries and the BRIICS. Environ Econ Policy Stud 23, 781–803 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10018-021-00301-1

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Keywords

  • ISO 14001
  • Environmental management systems
  • Certification
  • Diffusion patterns
  • Panel data
  • Time-series analysis