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Table 2 Results of an SDM-based spatial regression analysis to explain the diffusion ratio of PV systems

From: Neighborhood influences on the diffusion of residential photovoltaic systems in Kyoto City, Japan

Independent variable Definition of census-block contiguity (distance between the centroids of census blocks)
≤ 200 m ≤ 300 m ≤ 500 m ≤ 700 m ≤ 1000 m ≤ 1500 m ≤ 2000 m
Intercept − 0.028***
(− 3.30)
− 0.0177*
(− 1.86)
− 0.033***
(− 2.65)
− 0.0126
(− 0.90)
− 0.0091
(− 0.59)
0.0015
(0.08)
0.0094
(0.46)
Ratio of detached houses 0.0068*
(1.75)
0.0042
(1.17)
0.0035
(0.98)
0.0026
(0.73)
0.0057
(1.61)
0.0048
(1.36)
0.0040
(1.15)
Population density − 0.441***
(− 5.06)
− 0.456***
(− 5.37)
− 0.432***
(− 5.08)
− 0.432***
(− 5.18)
− 0.429***
(− 5.26)
− 0.440***
(− 5.45)
− 0.454***
(− 5.68)
Proportion of young people 0.0467***
(2.84)
0.0581***
(3.71)
0.0518***
(3.26)
0.0504***
(3.19)
0.0530***
(3.42)
0.0536***
(3.51)
0.0537***
(3.52)
Proportion of elderly people − 0.0084
(− 0.99)
− 0.0068
(− 0.83)
− 0.0077
(− 0.96)
− 0.0067
(− 0.85)
− 0.0073
(− 0.94)
− 0.0077
(− 1.00)
− 0.0072
(− 0.94)
Average number of household members 0.0072***
(2.85)
0.0071***
(3.01)
0.0065***
(2.72)
0.0073***
(3.09)
0.0063***
(2.70)
0.0067***
(2.92)
0.0072***
(3.17)
Proportion of residents living there for 5 years or less 0.0299***
(4.60)
0.0285***
(4.56)
0.0318***
(5.08)
0.0347***
(5.62)
0.0365***
(5.98)
0.0348***
(5.72)
0.0346***
(5.69)
Proportion of residents living there for 20 years or more − 0.0189***
(− 3.00)
− 0.0176***
(− 2.99)
− 0.0171***
(− 2.89)
− 0.0154***
(− 2.66)
− 0.0161***
(− 2.83)
− 0.0160***
(− 2.84)
− 0.0152***
(− 2.72)
Ratio of detached houses in nearby census blocks − 0.0112*
(− 1.94)
− 0.0159**
(− 2.48)
− 0.0225***
(− 2.79)
− 0.0156*
(− 1.65)
− 0.0436***
(− 3.84)
− 0.0368***
(− 2.61)
− 0.0311*
(− 1.76)
Population density in nearby census blocks − 0.2204*
(− 1.73)
− 0.3610**
(− 2.41)
− 0.3668**
(− 1.98)
− 0.3954*
(− 1.92)
− 0.4040*
(− 1.76)
− 0.5390**
(− 2.01)
− 0.6118*
(− 1.95)
Proportion of young people in nearby census blocks 0.0136
(0.50)
0.0412
(1.28)
0.0616
(1.37)
0.0908*
(1.72)
0.0221
(0.34)
0.1558**
(2.18)
0.2027***
(2.60)
Proportion of elderly people in nearby census blocks 0.0198
(1.48)
0.0135
(0.83)
0.0398*
(1.84)
0.0152
(0.61)
0.0348
(1.21)
0.0521
(1.38)
0.0619
(1.58)
Average number of household members in nearby census blocks 0.0155
(3.96)
0.0115***
(2.66)
0.0166***
(2.88)
0.0080
(1.23)
0.0217
(2.86)
0.0077
(0.91)
0.0030
(0.35)
Proportion of residents living in nearby census blocks for 5 years or less 0.0097
(0.98)
0.0032
(0.25)
0.0089
(0.49)
− 0.0237
(− 1.10)
− 0.0568**
(− 2.23)
− 0.0703**
(− 2.27)
− 0.0806**
(− 2.31)
Proportion of residents living in nearby census blocks for 20 years or more − 0.0011
(− 0.12)
0.0048
(0.42)
0.0002
(0.01)
0.0049
(0.30)
− 0.0167
(− 0.89)
− 0.0083
(− 0.38)
− 0.0203
(− 0.80)
Spatial autoregression coefficient, ρ (Diffusion ratio in nearby census blocks) 0.0080
(0.18)
0.0182
(0.46)
0.0937**
(5.55)
0.1090**
(4.93)
0.1456**
(5.07)
0.1096
(2.07)
0.0637
(0.45)
Akaike Information Criterion
(AIC)
− 13,892 − 15,508 − 15,720 − 15,851 − 16,015 − 16,188 − 16,225
Number of census blocks analyzed 3300 3697 3790 3824 3855 3900 3910
  1. Figures in parentheses indicate Z values (LR test statistic for the spatial autoregression coefficient, ρ)
  2. ***, **, and * indicate significant at 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively