Artificial Life and Robotics

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 477–482 | Cite as

A design of robotic spine composed of parallelogram actuation modules

  • Shiqi YuEmail author
  • Yoshihiro Nakata
  • Yutaka Nakamura
  • Hiroshi Ishiguro
Original Article


Humanoids are being applied into society gradually in the aspect of human–robot interaction recently. The human spine plays an important role when performing natural human upper body postures. However, most of the humanoids only show tense body postures due to the limitations of their simple mechanical structures. We investigated that the human natural spine postures can be imitated by serially connected rigid links with a few joints by the analysis of human spine motion. In this report, we proposed a robotic spine composed of parallelogram actuation modules, and built a prototype. We also investigated the natural spinal postural appearances which are realized by the prototype.


Robotic spine Human-like Natural posture Humanoid Optimization 



This work was partially supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Grant numbers JP26730136 and JP26700026.


  1. 1.
    Nishio S, Ishiguro H, Hagita N (2007) Geminoid: teleoperated android of an existing person. INTECH Open Access Publisher, Vienna, pp 343–352Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Endo N, Takanishi A (2011) Development of whole-body emotional expression humanoid robot for adl-assistive rt services. JRM 23(6):969–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kanda T, Ishiguro H, Ono T, Imai M, Nakatsu R (2002) Development and evaluation of an interactive humanoid robot “Robovie”. In: Proceedings IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, vol 2. pp 1848–1855Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kozuki T, Hirose T, Shirai T, Nakashima S, Asano Y, Kakiuchi Y, Okada K, Inaba M (2016) Skeletal structure with artificial perspiration for cooling by latent heat for musculoskeletal humanoid kengoro. In: Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp 2135–2140Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gardner Morse M, Stokes IA, Laible JP (1995) Role of muscles in lumbar spine stability in maximum extension efforts. J Orthop Res 13(5):802–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andrei SR, Nakamura Y, Nakata Y, Ishiguro H (2016) Design strategy for robotic spines of androids with a natural postural appearance. In: 2016 IEEE-RAS international conference on humanoid robots, pp 312–317Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ryu H, Nakata Y, Nakamura Y, Ishiguro H (2016) Adaptive whole-body dynamics: an actuator network system for orchestrating multijoint movements. IEEE RAM 23(3):85–92Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Van Varseveld RB, Bone GM (1997) Accurate position control of a pneumatic actuator using on/off solenoid valves. IEEE/ASME TMECH 2(3):195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Paul AK, Mishra JE, Radke MG (1994) Reduced order sliding mode control for pneumatic actuator. IEEE TCST 2(3):271–276Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Linnett JA, Smith MC (1989) An accurate low-friction pneumatic position control system. Proc Inst Mech Eng B 203(3):159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Noritsugu T (1986) Development of PWM mode electro-pneumatic servomechanism. I: speed control of a pneumatic cylinder. J Fluid Control 17(1):65–80Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ISAROB 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shiqi Yu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yoshihiro Nakata
    • 1
  • Yutaka Nakamura
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Ishiguro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Systems Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering ScienceOsaka UniversityToyonakaJapan

Personalised recommendations