Roll of the rhythmic component in the proactive control of a human hand

Abstract

In terms of evolution, the strategy of catching prey would have been an important part of survival in a constantly changing environment. A prediction mechanism would have developed to compensate for any delay in the sensory-motor system. In a previous study, “proactive control” was found, in which the motion of the hands preceded the virtual moving target. These results implied that the positive phase shift of the hand motion represents the proactive nature of the visual-motor control system, which attempts to minimize the brief error in the hand motion when the target changes position unexpectedly. In our study, a visual target moves in circle (13 cm diameter) on a computer screen, and each subject is asked to keep track of the target’s motion by the motion of a cursor. As the frequency of the target increases, a rhythmic component was found in the velocity of the cursor in spite of the fact that the velocity of the target was constant. The generation of a rhythmic component cannot be explained simply as a feedback mechanism for the phase shifts of the target and cursor in a sensory-motor system. Therefore, it implies that the rhythmic component was generated to predict the velocity of the target, which is a feed-forward mechanism in the sensory-motor system. Here, we discuss the generation of the rhythmic component and its roll in the feed-forward mechanism.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Ishida F, Sawada Y (2004) Human hand moves proactively to an external stimulus: an evolutional strategy for minimizing transient error. Phys Rev Lett 93:168105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Carl JR, Gellman RS (1987) Human smooth pursuit: stimulus-dependent responses. J Neurophysiol 57:1446–1463

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Rosen R. Anticipatory systems. Pergamon, London

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yoshikatsu Hayashi.

Additional information

This work was presented in part and was awarded the Young Author Award at the 14th International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics, Oita, Japan, February 5–7, 2009

About this article

Cite this article

Hayashi, Y., Tamura, Y., Sugawara, K. et al. Roll of the rhythmic component in the proactive control of a human hand. Artif Life Robotics 14, 164 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10015-009-0730-x

Download citation

Key words

  • Proactive control
  • Rhythmic component
  • Feed-back mechanism
  • Feed-forward mechanism