Finding the ideal automotive battery concept

A model-based approach on cell selection, modularization and thermal management
  • Christoph ReiterEmail author
  • Xue Lin
  • Lars-Eric Schlereth
  • Markus Lienkamp


There are many degrees of freedom in the design of a battery concept for electric vehicles. A suitable lithium-ion battery (LIB) must be selected from different cell chemistries, types and sizes. During operation, the LIBs must always be kept in the optimum temperature range, thus a suitable battery thermal management system (BTMS) architecture must be developed. All these decisions have a direct impact on the later characteristics of the battery system and are subject to complex interactions. Therefore, the question arises of an automated method that supports the user in finding the ideal overall battery concept for a given vehicle concept. This paper introduces and discusses such a process. After an analysis of all relevant electrical and thermal influences and previous work on this topic, an approach is derived that allows automatic cell selection, modularization and BTMS development considering all relevant influences up to the vehicle level. The approach considers the electrical and thermal behavior on both the cell and the system level. Furthermore, the BTMS is simulated using a novel approach allowing the configuration of air and liquid cooling with any desired configuration. The complete simulation framework is made available under an open-source license.



Battery electric vehicle


Battery thermal management system


Constant current constant voltage


Computational fluid dynamics


Equivalent circuit model


Lithium-ion battery


Phase change material


Solid electrolyte interphase



Auf der Suche nach dem optimalen Batteriekonzept für Elektrofahrzeuge

Ein modell-basierter Ansatz zur Zellauswahl, Modularisierung und Thermomanagement eines Batteriesystems


Bei der Entwicklung eines Batteriekonzepts für Elektrofahrzeuge gibt es viele Freiheitsgrade. Eine geeignete Lithium-Ionen-Batterie (LIB) muss aus verschiedenen Zellchemien, -typen und -größen ausgewählt werden. Während des Betriebs müssen die LIBs immer in ihrem optimalen Temperaturbereich gehalten werden, wofür eine geeignete BTMS-Architektur (Batterie-Thermomanagementsystem) notwendig ist. Alle diese Entscheidungen haben einen direkten Einfluss auf die späteren Eigenschaften des Batteriesystems und unterliegen komplexen Wechselwirkungen. Es stellt sich daher die Frage nach einem automatisierten Verfahren, das den Anwender dabei unterstützt, das ideale Gesamtbatteriekonzept für ein bestimmtes Fahrzeugkonzept zu finden. In diesem Paper wird eine solche Herangehensweise vorgestellt und diskutiert. Nach der Analyse aller relevanten elektrischen und thermischen Einflüsse und vorangegangener Arbeiten wird ein Ansatz abgeleitet, der eine automatische Zellauswahl, Modularisierung und BTMS-Entwicklung unter Berücksichtigung aller relevanten Einflüsse bis auf Fahrzeugebene ermöglicht. Der Ansatz berücksichtigt das elektrische und thermische Verhalten sowohl auf der Zell- als auch auf der Systemebene. Darüber hinaus wird das BTMS mit einem neuartigen Ansatz simuliert, der die Konfiguration der Luft- und Flüssigkeitskühlung mit beliebiger Konfiguration ermöglicht. Die komplette Simulationsumgebung wird unter einer Open-Source-Lizenz zur Verfügung gestellt.



C.R. is the first and main author. He identified the research gap, developed the underlying concepts, supported and advised L.-E.S. with the implementation of the simulation framework and wrote the paper except where noted otherwise.

X.L. reviewed the paper and gave advice on the impact of different cell types and sizes and researched and wrote the parts considering aging and thermal gradients inside cells.

L.-E.S. carried out the literature review on electrical and thermal LIB behavior and implemented the simulation framework.

M.L. made an essential contribution to the conception of the research project. He revised the paper critically for important intellectual content. M.L. gave final approval of the version to be published and agrees to all aspects of the work. As a guarantor, he accepts responsibility for the overall integrity of the paper.

The authors want to thank the Bavarian Research Foundation for funding the research as part of the project NEmo – Nutzerorientierte Elektromobilität [user-oriented electromobility](AZ-1203-16).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Automotive Technology, Department of Mechanical EngineeringTechnical University of MunichGarchingGermany

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