Automation and intelligent scheduling of distributed system functional testing

Model-based functional testing in practice
  • Lom Messan Hillah
  • Ariele-Paolo Maesano
  • Fabio De Rosa
  • Fabrice Kordon
  • Pierre-Henri Wuillemin
  • Riccardo Fontanelli
  • Sergio Di Bona
  • Davide Guerri
  • Libero Maesano
MBTCloud
  • 329 Downloads

Abstract

This paper presents the approach to functional test automation of services (black-box testing) and service architectures (grey-box testing) that has been developed within the MIDAS project and is accessible on the MIDAS SaaS. In particular, the algorithms and techniques adopted for addressing input and oracle generation, dynamic scheduling, and session planning issues supporting service functional test automation are illustrated. More specifically, the paper details: (i) the test input generation based on formal methods and temporal logic specifications, (ii) the test oracle generation based on service formal specifications, (iii) the dynamic scheduling of test cases based on probabilistic graphical reasoning, and (iv) the reactive, evidence-based planning of test sessions with on-the-fly generation of new test cases. Finally, the utilisation of the MIDAS prototype for the functional test of operational services and service architectures in the healthcare industry is reported and assessed. A planned evolution of the technology deals with the testing and troubleshooting of distributed systems that integrate connected objects.

Keywords

Service testing Test automation Model-based test generation Test scheduling Test prioritisation Test planning 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research has been conducted in the context of the MIDAS project (EC FP7 Project Number 318786) partially funded by the European Commission.

References

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    IBM Rational Service Tester for SOA Quality: Functional testing. http://www-03.ibm.com/software/products/fr/servicetest
  16. 16.
    Parasoft: Api testing, service virtualisation, test environment and data management. https://www.parasoft.com
  17. 17.
    Soasta: Load and performance testing. https://www.soasta.com
  18. 18.
    Tricentis: Risk-based testing, model-based test automation and test data management. http://www.tricentis.com
  19. 19.
    Anand, S., Edmund, K.B., Tsong, Y.C., John, A.C., Myra, B.C., Wolfgang, G., Mark, H., Mary, J.H., Phil, M.: An orchestrated survey of methodologies for automated software test case generation. J. Syst. Softw. 86(8), 1978–2001 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Paolo, A., Angelo, G., Elvinia, R.: Optimizing the automatic test generation by SAT and SMT solving for boolean expressions. In: Proceedings of the 2011 26th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, ASE ’11, pp. 388–391, Washington, DC. IEEE Computer Society (2011)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Askarunisa, A., Punitha, K.A.J., Abirami, A.M., Black box test case prioritization techniques for semantic based composite web services using OWL-S. In: Recent Trends in Information Technology (ICRTIT), 2011 International Conference, pp. 1215–1220. IEEE (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Athira, B., Samuel, P.: Web services regression test case prioritization. In: Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications (CISIM), 2010 International Conference, pp. 438–443. IEEE (2010)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Barcelona, M.A., García-Borgoñón, L., López-Nicolás, G.: Practical experiences in the usage of MIDAS in the logistics domain. Int. J. Softw. Tools Technol. Transf. (2016). doi:10.1007/s10009-016-0430-5
  24. 24.
    Barr, E.T., Harman, M., McMinn, P., Shahbaz, M., Yoo, S.: The oracle problem in software testing: a survey. Softw. Eng. IEEE Trans. 41(5), 507–525 (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bartolini, C., Bertolino, A., Marchetti, E., Polini, A.: WS-TAXI: A WSDL-based testing tool for web services. In: Second International Conference on Software Testing Verification and Validation, ICST 2009, Denver, Colorado, USA, April 1–4, 2009, pp. 326–335. IEEE Computer Society (2009)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bentakouk, L., Poizat, P., Zaïdi, F.: Checking the behavioral conformance of web services with symbolic testing and an SMT solver. In: TAP, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6706, pp. 33–50. Springer (2011)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bozkurt, M., Mark, H., Youssef, H.: Testing and verification in service-oriented architecture: a survey. Softw. Test. Verif. Reliab. 23(4), 261–313 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cao, T. D., Felix, P., Castanet, R., Berrada, I.: Online testing framework for web services. In: 2010 Third International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, pp. 363–372 (2010)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chan, A.: Encyclopedia of database systems, chapter service component architecture (SCA), pp. 2632–2633. Springer US, Boston (2009)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen, L., Wang, Z., Xu, L., Lu, H., Xu, B.: Test case prioritization for web service regression testing. In: Service Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), 2010 Fifth IEEE International Symposium, pp. 173–178. IEEE (2010)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Clarke, E.M., Grumberg, O., Peled, D.A.: Model checking, pp. 1–314. MIT Press (2001)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Clarke, E.M., Klieber, W., Novácek, M., Zuliani, P.: Model checking and the state explosion problem. In: Meyer, B., Nordio, M. (eds.) Tools for Practical Software Verification, LASER, International Summer School 2011, Elba Island, Italy, Revised Tutorial Lectures, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7682, pp. 1–30. Springer (2011)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Conforti, D., Groccia, M.C., Corasaniti, B., Guido, R., Iannacchero, R.: EHMTI-0172. Calabria Cephalalgic Network: innovative services and systems for the integrated clinical management of headache patients. J. Headache Pain 15(Suppl 1), D12 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Console, L., Fugini, M.: WS-DIAMOND: an approach to web services–DIAgnosability, MONitoring and Diagnosis, Information and Communication Technologies and the Knowledge Economy, vol. 4. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2007)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    de Kleer, J., Williams, B.C.: Diagnosing multiple faults. Artif. Intell. 32(1), 97–130 (1987)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dechter, R.: Elimination, bucket: a unifying framework for processing hard and soft constraints. Constraints 2(1), 51–55 (1997)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    ECMA International. Standard ECMA-262—ECMAScript Language Specification 5.1 Edition (2011). http://www.ecma-international.org/ecma-262/5.1/Ecma-262.pdf
  38. 38.
    Elbaum, S., Malishevsky, A.G., Rothermel, G.: Test case prioritization: a family of empirical studies. Softw. Eng. IEEE Trans. 28(2), 159–182 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Thomas, E.: Service-oriented architecture: concepts, technology, and design. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River (2005)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Harel, D.: Statecharts: a visual formalism for complex systems. Sci. Comput. Program. 8(3), 231–274 (1987)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Haverbeke, M.: Eloquent JavaScript: a modern introduction to programming. No Starch Press Series, No Starch Press (2011)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hierons, R.M., Bogdanov, K., Bowen, J.P., Cleaveland, R., Derrick, J., Dick, J., Gheorghe, M., Harman, M., Kapoor, K., Krause, P., Lüttgen, G., Anthony, J.H., Simons, S., Vilkomir, M.R., Hussein, Z.: Using formal specifications to support. ACM Comput. Surv 41(2), 9:1–9:76 (2009)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    IETF. The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)—RFC 7252 (2014). https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7252
  44. 44.
    Jehan, S., Pill, I., Wotawa, F.: Functional SOA testing based on constraints. In: 8th International Workshop on Automation of Software Test, AST 2013, San Francisco, May 18–19, pp. 33–39 (2013)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jensen, F.V., Kjærulff, U., Kristiansen, B., Langseth, H., Skaanning, C., Vomlel, J., Vomlelová, M.: The SACSO methodology for troubleshooting complex systems. AI EDAM 15, 321–333 (2001)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Joshi, R., Lamport, L., Matthews, J., Tasiran, S., Tuttle, M.R.: Yuan, Y.: Checking cache-coherence protocols with TLA\(^{\text{+}}\). Formal Methods Syst. Des. 22(2), 125–131 (2003)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Juszczyk, L., Truong, H.L., Dustdar, S.: GENESIS—a framework for automatic generation and steering of testbeds of complex web services. In: ICECCS, pp. 131–140. IEEE Computer Society (2008)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kaschner, K., Lohmann, N.: Automatic test case generation for interacting services. In: ICSOC Workshops, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5472, pp. 66-78. Springer (2008)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Khinchin, A.I.A.: Mathematical foundations of information theory. Dover Books on Mathematics. Dover (1957)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lamport, L.: Specifying systems. The TLA+ Language and Tools for Hardware and Software Engineers. Addison-Wesley (2002)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lamport, L.: The PlusCal Algorithm Language. In: Theoretical Aspects of Computing—ICTAC 2009: 6th International Colloquium, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 16–20, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lampropoulos, L., Sagonas, K.F.: Automatic WSDL-guided test case generation for PropEr testing of web services. In: WWV, EPTCS, vol. 98, pp. 3–16 (2012)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lohmann, N., Wolf, K.: Realizability is controllability. In: WS-FM, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6194, pp. 110–127. Springer (2009)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Finn, A.L., Jensen, V.: Lazy propagation: a junction tree inference algorithm based on lazy evaluation. Artif. Intell. 113(1), 203–245 (1999)MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Maesano, A.-P.: Bayesian dynamic scheduling for service composition testing. Ph.D. Thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie—Paris VI, 2015Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mayer, P., Lübke, D.: Towards a BPEL unit testing framework. In: TAV-WEB Proceedings of the 2006 Workshop on Testing, Analysis, and Verification of Web Services and Applications. TAV-WEB ’06, pp. 33–42. ACM, New York (2006). doi:10.1145/1145718.1145723
  57. 57.
    Mei, L., Chan, W.K., Tse, T.H., Merkel, R.G.: XML-manipulating test case prioritization for XML-manipulating services. J. Syst. Softw. 84(4), 603–619 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mirarab, S., Tahvildari, L.: A prioritization approach for software test cases based on bayesian networks. In: Dwyer, M., Lopes, A. (eds.) Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4422, pp. 276–290. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Namin, A.S., Sridharan, M.: Bayesian reasoning for software testing. Proceedings of the FSE/SDP workshop on future of software engineering research. FoSER ’10, pp. 349–354. ACM, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Newcombe, C.: Why Amazon chose TLA +. In: Aït Ameur, Y., Schewe, K.-D., (eds.) Abstract State Machines, Alloy, B, TLA, VDM., Z—4th International Conference, ABZ 2014, Toulouse, France, June 2–6, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8477, pp. 25–39. Springer (2014)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Newcombe, C., Rath, T., Zhang, F., Munteanu, B., Brooker, M., Deardeuff, M.: How Amazon web services uses formal methods. Commun. ACM 58(4), 66–73 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Newcomer, E.: Understanding Web Services: XML, WSDL, SOAP, and UDDI. Independent technology guides. Addison-Wesley (2002)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Newcomer, E., Lomow, G.: Understanding SOA with Web Services. Independent technology guides. Addison-Wesley (2005)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Newman, S.: Building microservices: designing fine-grained systems, 1st edn. O’Reilly, Sebastopol (2015)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nguyen, C. D., Marchetto, A., Tonella, P.: Change sensitivity based prioritization for audit testing of webservice compositions. In: Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), 2011 IEEE Fourth International Conference, pp. 357–365. IEEE (2011)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    OASIS. Web Services Business Process Execution Language Version 2.0 (2007). http://docs.oasis-open.org/wsbpel/2.0/wsbpel-v2.0.pdf
  67. 67.
  68. 68.
    Object Management Group (OMG). Uml testing profile, version 1.2. http://www.omg.org/spec/UTP/1.2
  69. 69.
    Oracle. Automating Testing of SOA Composite Applications (2016). http://bit.ly/2bhzr5F
  70. 70.
    Parsons, S.: Probabilistic graphical models: principles and techniques by Daphne Koller and Nir Friedman, MIT Press, 1231 pp., ISBN 0-262-01319-3. Knowl. Eng. Rev. 26(02), 237–238 (2011)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pearl, J.: Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems: Networks of Plausible Inference. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco (1988)MATHGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Perera, C., Zaslavsky, A.B., Christen, P., Georgakopoulos, D.: Sensing as a service model for smart cities supported by internet of things. CoRR. arXiv:1307.8198 (2013)
  73. 73.
    Pezzè, M., Zhang, C.: Automated test oracles: a survey. Adv. Comput. 95, 1–48 (2015)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rees, K., Coolen, F.P.A., Goldstein, M., Wooff, D.A.: Managing the uncertainties of software testing: a Bayesian approach. Qual. Reliab. Eng. Int. 17(3), 191–203 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Reiter, R.: A theory of diagnosis from first principles. Artif. Intell. 32(1), 57–95 (1987)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Schnoebelen, P.: The complexity of temporal logic model checking. In: Balbiani, P., Suzuki, N.-Y., Wolter, F., Zakharyaschev, M., (eds.) Advances in Modal Logic 4, papers from the fourth conference on “Advances in Modal logic,” held in Toulouse (France) in October 2002, pp. 393–436. King’s College Publications (2002)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Shamsoddin-Motlagh, E.: A survey of service oriented architecture systems testing. arXiv:1212.3248 (2012)
  78. 78.
    Skaanning, C., Jensen, F.V., Kjærulff, U.: Printer Troubleshooting Using Bayesian Networks. In: Logananthara, R., Palm, G., Ali, M. (eds.) Intelligent Problem Solving. Methodologies and Approaches, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1821, pp. 367–380. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2000)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Stokkink, G., Timmer, M., Stoelinga, M.: Talking quiescence: a rigorous theory that supports parallel composition, action hiding and determinisation. In: MBT, EPTCS, vol. 80, pp. 73–87 (2012)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tsai, W.T., Chen, Y., Paul, R., Huang, H., Zhou, X., Wei, X.: Adaptive testing, oracle generation, and test case ranking for Web services. In: Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2005. COMPSAC 2005. 29th Annual International, vol. 1, pp. 101–106 (vol. 2). IEEE (2005)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wang, H., Zhou, Q., Shi, Y.: Describing and verifying web service composition using TLA reasoning. In: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, SCC 2010, Miami, July 5–10, 2010, pp. 234–241. IEEE Computer Society (2010)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG). Web sockets, in HTML Living Standard (2016). https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/comms.html#network
  83. 83.
    Wilde, E., Pautasso, C. (eds.) REST: From Research to Practice. Springer (2011)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Wooff, D.A., Goldstein, M., Coolen, F.P.A.: Bayesian graphical models for software testing. Softw. Eng. IEEE Trans. 28(5), 510–525 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wotawa, F., Schulz, M., Pill, I., Jehan, S., Leitner, P., Hummer, W., Schulte, S., Hoenisch, P., Dustdar, S.: Fifty shades of grey in SOA testing. In: 2013 IEEE Sixth International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, Workshops Proceedings, Luxembourg, Luxembourg, March 18–22, 2013, pp. 154–157. IEEE Computer Society (2013)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wu, C.-S., Lee, Y.-T.: Automatic SaaS test cases generation based on SOA in the cloud service. In: CloudCom, pp. 349–354. IEEE Computer Society (2012)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Yoo, S., Harman, M.: Regression testing minimization, selection and prioritization: a survey. Softw. Test. Verif. Reliab. 22(2), 67–120 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lom Messan Hillah
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ariele-Paolo Maesano
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fabio De Rosa
    • 3
  • Fabrice Kordon
    • 2
  • Pierre-Henri Wuillemin
    • 2
  • Riccardo Fontanelli
    • 4
  • Sergio Di Bona
    • 4
  • Davide Guerri
    • 4
  • Libero Maesano
    • 3
  1. 1.Univ. Paris Ouest Nanterre La DéfenseNanterreFrance
  2. 2.Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, LIP6 UMR7606ParisFrance
  3. 3.Simple Engineering FranceParisFrance
  4. 4.Dedalus S.p.AFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations