Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 22, Issue 11, pp 3607–3619 | Cite as

Synthesis, characterization, and preparation of nickel nanoparticles decorated electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified electrode for electrochemical sensing of diclofenac

  • Birhanu Mekassa
  • Priscilla G. L. Baker
  • Bhagwan Singh ChandravanshiEmail author
  • Merid Tessema
Original Paper


In this work, nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) and graphene oxide (GO) were synthesized and characterized independently using spectroscopic and microscopic characterization techniques. Then, a new glassy carbon electrode modified with electrochemically reduced graphene oxide decorated with nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs/ERGO/GCE) was constructed by electrodeposition. The novel platform, NiNPs/ERGO/GCE, was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). SEM analysis clearly revealed efficient incorporation of NiNPs into the graphene sheets on the surface of the electrode. The prepared platform was used for the determination of diclofenac (DIC). A significant enhancement in the peak current response for DIC was observed at the composite modified electrode compared to the unmodified electrode. The NiNPs/ERGO composite modified electrode demonstrated excellent square wave voltammetric response towards the determination of DIC in the working range of 0.250–125 μM. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the proposed method were found to be 0.09 and 0.30 μM, respectively. The sensor was validated successfully for real sample analysis in pharmaceutical formulation and human urine samples with good recovery results. The proposed sensor also displayed good repeatability, reproducibility, long-term stability, and selectivity towards potential interferents. Hence, it is a promising material for electrochemical sensing of diclofenac and other similar drugs and biologically active compounds in real samples.


Nickel nanoparticles Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide Composite modified electrode Square wave voltammetry Diclofenac 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the University of the Western Cape, Department of Chemistry, for supporting this work.

Supplementary material

10008_2018_4071_MOESM1_ESM.docx (77 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 77 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Birhanu Mekassa
    • 1
  • Priscilla G. L. Baker
    • 2
  • Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Merid Tessema
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, College of Natural SciencesAddis Ababa UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of the Western CapeBellvilleSouth Africa

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