Highly sensitive determination of salicylic acid in skin care product by means of carbon nanotube/iron oxide nanoparticle voltammetric sensors

Abstract

The present work reports the performance and the mechanism of detection of a voltammetric sensor for salicylic acid (SA) in a skin care product employing a carbon nanotube/iron oxide nanoparticle (SWCNT/ION) modified electrode. The coupling between Fe(III) → Fe(II) and SA → SA (radical) half-cell reactions at the surface of SWCNT/ION and the enlarged surface area are harnessed to enhance the sensor’s sensitivity. By means of differential pulse voltammetry under optimized conditions, the performance of the (SWCNT/ION) provided the following figure of merit: two linear working ranges 0.6–2.9 μmol/L (r2 = 0.996) and 2.9–46.3 μmol/L (r2 = 0.995), sensitivity 0.64 μA cm−2/μmol L−1, limit of detection (LOD) (3Sb/b) 0.02 μmol/L, and limit of quantification (10Sb/b) 0.07 μmol/L. The LOD is lower than most of the electroanalytical methodologies found in the literature. The determination of SA in a skin care product shows no difference, at 95% confidence level (Student’s t test), to that performed with HPLC/UV-Vis. Moreover, a single modified electrode can be used for at least 18 consecutive runs while losing less than 10% of its sensitivity. The sensitivity difference between electrodes made in different batches is only 5.4%.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank the support of Dr. Marcelo A. Pereira-da-Silva (IFSC-USP) with atomic force microscopy and Professor Maria A. G. Soler (IF-UnB) with Raman spectroscopy.

Funding

Financial support was given by Brazilian funding agencies CNPq and FAP-DF (process no. 0193.000829/2015) and FINEP (process no. 01/13/0470/00). This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001.

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Correspondence to Leonardo G. Paterno.

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Ribeiro, C.L., Santos, J.G.M., Souza, J.R. et al. Highly sensitive determination of salicylic acid in skin care product by means of carbon nanotube/iron oxide nanoparticle voltammetric sensors. J Solid State Electrochem 23, 783–793 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-018-04189-y

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Keywords

  • Salicylic acid
  • Skin care product
  • Electroanalytical method
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Iron oxide nanoparticles
  • Layer-by-layer