Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 21, Issue 9, pp 2655–2663 | Cite as

Hydrothermal synthesis of brookite TiO2 nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cell

  • C. G. EzemaEmail author
  • A. C. Nwanya
  • B. E. Ezema
  • Malik Maaza
  • P. O. Ukoha
  • F. I. Ezema
Original Paper


We obtained Tannin-4-azobenzoic acid (azo dye) by the conventional method of diazotization and coupling of aromatic amines. The properties of the azo dye were characterized via ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis), infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were deposited by hydrothermal method onto fluorine-doped tin (IV) oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate at 353 K for 4 h. The as-deposited and annealed films were characterized for structural, morphological, optical, thickness, and wettability properties. The synthesized metal free azo dye was used to sensitize the prepared TiO2 thin film with thickness of 26 μm. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of TiO2 sensitized with the azo dye was evaluated in polyiodide (0.1 M KI + 0.01 M I2 + 0.1 M KCl) electrolyte at 40 mW cm−2 illumination intensity. The cell yielded a short circuit current of 2.82 mA, open circuit voltage of 314.3 mV, a fill factor of 0.30, and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency value of 0.64%.

Graphical abstract


Azo dye Titanium dioxide Solar cell Photoelectrochemical studies 



Authors are grateful to Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (M.S.), India. We also thank Engr. Emeka Okwuosa MD Oilserv Ltd. Group of Companies for generous sponsorship of April 2014 and August 2016 Nano conferences/workshops on applications of nanotechnology to energy, health &.Environment conference and for providing some research facilities.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. G. Ezema
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • A. C. Nwanya
    • 3
  • B. E. Ezema
    • 2
  • Malik Maaza
    • 4
    • 5
  • P. O. Ukoha
    • 2
  • F. I. Ezema
    • 3
  1. 1.National Centre for Energy Research and DevelopmentUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Pure and Industrial ChemistryUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria
  3. 3.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria
  4. 4.Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research FoundationSomerset WestSouth Africa
  5. 5.UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate StudiesUniversity of South Africa (UNISA)PretoriaSouth Africa

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