Advertisement

Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 21, Issue 9, pp 2629–2638 | Cite as

Structural modification and band gap tailoring of zinc oxide thin films using copper impurities

  • Mrumun David TyonaEmail author
  • R.U. Osuji
  • P.U. Asogwa
  • S.B. Jambure
  • F.I. Ezema
Original Paper

Abstract

The doping effects of Cu on structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO thin films and their PEC properties have been investigated via chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique at 353 K bath temperature and a pH of 11.5 with post-deposition annealing at 673 K. The concentration of Cu in ZnO varied between 1 and 5 at.%. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the synthesized Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) thin films were highly crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure, showing strong preferential growth along the c-axis for 3 at.% Cu concentration. A shift in angular peak position of 0.545o in 2θ towards higher angle was observed for CZO films which is an indication of effective substitution of Cu atoms on Zn lattice. Crystallite sizes were enhanced from 28 to 32 nm in the (002) crystal plane. Optical analysis indicates a red shift in the absorption band edge up to 450 nm upon Cu doping. Transmittance characteristics increased slightly from 80 to 90% in the visible range at optimum Cu concentration of 3 at.%. Optical energy band gap was found to decrease from 3.03 eV for undoped ZnO to 2.7 eV upon Cu doping. The morphological structures of the CZO thin films were strongly influenced by Cu impurities and its concentration. The water contact angles showed strong dependence on Cu impurities in ZnO and decreased considerably from 71.3 to 15.2°. The synthesized CZO films showed enhanced photoelectrochemical properties, giving a short circuit current (I sc) of 0.098 mAcm−2 and open circuit voltage (V oc) of 796 mV for an optimum Cu concentration of 3 at.% with photoconversion efficiency of 0.062% and fill factor of 63%.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Cu impurities Cu-doped ZnO Bandgap Surface morphology Chemical bath deposition Hexagonal wurtzite structure Nanorods 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Thin film laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur is greatly acknowledged for their firm support for this work. We thank Engr. Emeka Okwuosa for generous sponsorship of April 2014 and July, 2016 conference/workshops on applications of nanotechnology to energy, health & Environment conference and for providing some research facilities.

References

  1. 1.
    Babikier M, Wang D, Wang J, Li Q, Sun J, Yan Y, Yu Q, Jiao S (2014) Cu-doped ZnO nanorod arrays: the effects of copper precursor and concentration. Nanoscale Res Lett 9:199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hsu CH, Chen LC, Zhang X (2014) Effect of the Cu source on optical properties of CuZnO films deposited by ultrasonic spraying. Mater 7:1261–1270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thaweesaeng N, Supankit S, Techidheera W, Pecharap W (2013) Structure properties of as-synthesized Cu-doped ZnO nanopowder synthesized by co-precipitation method. Ener Procedia 34:682–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mukhtar M, Munisa L, Saleh R (2012) Co-precipitation synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline zinc oxide particles doped with Cu2+ ions. Mater Sc & Appl 3:543–551Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shinde VR, Lokhande CD, Mane RS, Hwan HS (2005) Hydrophobic and textured ZnO films deposited by chemical bath deposition: annealing effect. Appl Surf Sc 245:407–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Drici A, Djeteli G, Tchangbedgi G, Deruiche H, Jondo K, Napo K, Barnede JC, Ouro-Djobom S, Gbagba M (2004) Structured ZnO thin films grown by chemical bath deposition for photovoltaic applications. Phys Stat Sol (a) 201:1528–1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li Y, Gong J, Deng Y (2010) Hierarchical structured ZnO nanorods on ZnO nanofibers and their photoresponse to UV and visible lights. Sensor Actuat A: Phys 158:176–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lao CS, Liu J, Gao P, Zhang L, Davidovic D, Tummala R, Wang ZL (2006) ZnO nanobelt/nanowire Schottky diodes formed by dielectrophoresis alignment across Au electrodes. Nano Lett 6:263–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fortunato E, Gonçalves A, Pimentel A, Barquinha P, Gonçalves G, Pereira L, Ferreira I, Martins R (2009) Zinc oxide, a multifunctional material: from material to device applications. Appl Phys A Mater Sci Process 96:197–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chow L, Lupan O, Chai G, Khallaf H, Ono L, Roldan K, Cuenya B, Tiginyanu IM, Ursak VV, Sontea V, Schulte A (2013) Synthesis and characterization of Cu-doped ZnO one-dimensional structures for miniaturized sensor applications with faster response. Sensors Actuators A 189:399–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Choi MY, Choi D, Jin MJ, Kim I, Kim SH, Choi JY, Lee SY, Kim JM, Kim SW (2009) Mechanically powered transparent flexible charge-generating nanodevices with piezoelectric ZnO nanorods. Adv Mater 21:2185–2189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roy MS, Balraju P, Kumar M, Sharma GD (2008) Dye-sensitized solar cell based on Rose Bengal dye and nanocrystalline TiO2. Sol Energ Mat Sol 92:909–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Snure M, Tiwari A (2008) Band-gap engineering of Zn1<xGaxO nanopowders: synthesis, structural and optical characterizations. J Appl Phys 104:073707–073705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang X, Song C, Geng K, Zeng F, Pan F (2007) Photoluminescence and Raman scattering of Cu-doped ZnO films prepared by magnetron sputtering. Appl Surf Sc 253:6905–6690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gao D, Xue D, Xu Y, Yan Z, Zhang Z (2009) Synthesis and magnetic properties of Cu-doped ZnO nanowire arrays. Electrochim Acta 54:2392–2395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Singhal S, Kaur J, Namgyal T, Sharma R (2012) Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles: synthesis, structural and electrical properties. Physica B 407:1223–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fu M, Li Y, Wu S, Lu P, Liu J, Dong F (2011) Sol-gel preparation and enhanced photocatalytic performance of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Appl Surf Sc 258:1587–1591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ma H, Yue L, Yu C, Dong X, Zhang X, Xue M, Zhang X, Fu Y (2012) Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of Cu-doped Zn/ZnO photocatalyst with carbon modification. J Mater Chem 22:23780–23788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lupan O, Pauporté T, Viana B, Aschehoug P (2011) Electrodeposition of Cu-doped ZnO nanowire arrays and heterojunction formation with p-GaN for color tunable light emitting diode applications. Electrochim Acta 56:10543–10549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Muthukumaran S, Gopalakrishnan R (2012) Structural, FTIR and photoluminescence studies of Cu doped ZnO nanopowders by co-precipitation method. Opt Mater 34:1946–1953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chauhan R, Kumar A, Chaudhary RP (2010) Synthesis and characterization of copper doped ZnO nanoparticles. J Chem Pharm Res 2:178–183Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yao PC, Hang ST, Lin YS, Yen WT, Lin YC (2010) Optical and electrical characteristics of Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by aqueous phase deposition. Appl Surf Sc 257:1441–1448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lee SH, Han SH, Jung HS, Shin H, Lee J, Noh JH, Lee S, Cho IS, Lee JK, Kim J, Shin H (2010) Al-doped ZnO thin film: a new transparent conducting layer for ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells. J Phys Chem C 114:7185–7189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Herng TS, Lau SP, Yu SF, Yang HY, Wang L, Tanemura M, Chen JS (2007) Magnetic anisotropy in the ferromagnetic Cu-doped ZnO nanoneedles. Appl. Phy Lett 90:032509–032517Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lupan O, Pauporte T, Le Bahers T, Viana B, Ciofini I (2011) Wavelength emission tuning of ZnO nanowires-based light emitting diodes by Cu-doping: experimental and computational insights. Ad FunctMater 21:3564–3572Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mkawi EM, Ibrahim K, Ali MKM, Farrukh MA, Mohamed AS (2015) The effect of dopant concentration on properties of transparent conducting Al-doped ZnO thin films for efficient Cu2ZnSnS4 thin-film solar cells prepared by electrodeposition method. Appl Nanosci 3:56–67Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shannon RD (1976) Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides. Acta Crystallographica A 32:751–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kulkarni SB, Patil UM, Salunkhea RR, Joshi SS, Lokhande CD (2011) Temperature impact on morphological evolution of ZnO and its consequent effect on physico-chemical properties. J Alloys and Comp 509:3486–3492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thakur S, Sharma N, Varkia A, Kumar J (2014) Structural and optical properties of copper doped ZnO nanoparticles and thin films. Adv in Appl Sc Res 5:18–24Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mani GK, Rayappan JBB (2014) Influence of copper doping on structural, optical and sensing properties of spray deposited zinc oxide thin films. J Alloys and Comp 582:414–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kakiuchi K, Saito M, Fujihara S (2008) Fabrication of ZnO films consisting of densely accumulated mesoporous nanosheets and their dye-sensitized solar cell performance. Thin Solid Films 516:2026–2035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhou Z, Kato K, Komaki T, Yoshino M, Yukawa H, Morinagaand M, Morita K (2003) Electrical conductivity of Cu-doped ZnO and its change with hydrogen implantation. JElectroceramics 11:73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jongnavakit P, Amornpitoksuk P, Suwanboon S, Ndiege N (2012) Preparation and photocatalytic activity of Cu-doped ZnO thin films prepared by the sol-gel method. Appl Surf Sc 258:8192–8198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dom R, Lijin RB, Kim HG, Borse PH (2013) Enhanced solar photoelectrochemical conversion efficiency of ZnO:cu electrodes for water-splitting application. Inter J Photoenergy 2013:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Khallaf H, Chai G, Lupan O, Heinrich H, Park S, Schulte A, Chow L (2009) Investigation of chemical bath deposition of ZnO thin films using six different complexing agents. J Phys D Appl Phys 42:135304–135312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hao Y, Yang M, Li W, Qiao X, Zhang L, Cai S (2000) A photoelectrochemical solar cell based on ZnO/dye/polypyrrole film electrode as photoanode. Sol Ener Mater Sol Cells 60:349–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kim JD, Honma I (2004) Synthesis and proton conducting properties of zirconia bridged hydrocarbon/phosphotungstic acid hybrid materials. Electro Chim Acta 49:3179–3318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shrestha SP, Ghimire R, Nakarmi JJ, Kim YS, Shrestha S, Park CY, Boo JH (2010) Properties of ZnO:Al films prepared by spin coating of aged precursor solution. Bull. Korean Chem Soc 31:112–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bhattacharya C, Datta J (2005) Studies on anodic corrosion of the electroplated CdSe in aqueous and non-aqueous media for photoelectrochemical cells and characterization of the electrode/electrolyte interface. Mater Chem Phys 89:170–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sun RD, Nakajima A, Fujushima A, Watanabe T, Hashimoto K (2001) Photoinduced surface wettability conversion of ZnO and TiO2 thin films. J Phys Chem B 105:1984–1991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sun H, Luo M, Weng W, Cheng K, Du P, Shen G, Han G (2008) Room-temperature preparation of ZnO M nanosheets grown on Si substrates by a seed-layer assisted solution route. Nanotechnology 19:125603–125610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shinde NM, Dubal DP, Dhawale DS, Lokhande CD, Kim JH, Moon JH (2012) Room temperature novel chemical synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) absorbing layer for photovoltaic application. Mater Res Bull 47:302–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lokhande CD, Pawar SH (1984) Electrochemical photovoltaic cells for solar energy conversion. Mater Chem Phys 11:201–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Luther JM, Jain PK, Ewers T, Alivisatos A (2011) UV-VIS and photoluminescence spectroscopy for nanomaterials characterization. Nat Mater 10:361–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Scregg J, Dale P, Peter L, Zopp G, Forbes L (2008) New routes to sustainable photovoltaics: evaluation of Cu2ZnSnS4 as an alternative absorber material. Phys. Status Solidi 245:1772–1776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shinde NM, Deshmukh PR, Patil SV, Lokhande CD (2013) Aqueous chemical growth of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films: air annealing and photoelectrochemical properties. Mater Res Bull 48:1760–1766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bulakhe RN, Shinde NM, Thorat RD, Nikam SS, Lokhande CD (2013) Deposition of copper iodide thin films by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods. Cur Appl Phy 13:1661–1667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tyona MD, Osuji RU, Ezema FI, Jambure SB, Lokhande CD (2015) Highly efficient natural dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells based on Cu-doped zinc oxide thin film electrodes. Adv Appl Sc Res 6:7–20Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tyona MD, Osuji RU, Ezema FI, Jambure SB,Lokhande CD (2016) Enhanced photoelectrochemicalsolar cells based on natural dye-sensitized Al-doped zinc oxide electrodes. Adv Appl Sc Res 7:18–31Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mrumun David Tyona
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • R.U. Osuji
    • 2
  • P.U. Asogwa
    • 2
  • S.B. Jambure
    • 3
  • F.I. Ezema
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsBenue State UniversityMakurdiNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsShivaji UniversityKolhapurIndia

Personalised recommendations