Anomalous codeposition of cobalt and ruthenium from chloride–sulfate baths
Codeposition of Ru and Co was studied at room temperature and at 50 °C with various Ru3+ and Co2+ concentrations in the electrolyte. The codeposition of Co and Ru proved to be anomalous since no pure Ru could be obtained in the presence of Co2+ in the electrolyte, but a significant Co incorporation into the deposit was detected at potentials where the deposition of pure Co was not possible. The composition of the deposits varied monotonously with the change of the concentration ratio of Co2+ and Ru3+. The deposition of Ru was much hindered, and the current efficiency was a few percent only when the molar fraction of Co in the deposit was low. Continuous deposits could be obtained only when the molar fraction of Co in the deposit was at least 40 at.%. The deposit morphology was related to the molar fraction of Co in the deposit. The X-ray diffractograms are in conformity with a hexagonal close-packed alloy and indicate the formation of nanocrystalline deposits. Two-pulse plating did not lead to a multilayer but to a Co-rich alloy. Magnetoresistance of the samples decreased with increasing Ru content.
KeywordsRuthenium Cobalt Anomalous codeposition Alloy formation Pulse plating
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