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Theoretical and experimental evaluation of screen-printed tubular carbon ink disposable sensor well electrodes by dc and Fourier transformed ac voltammetry

Abstract

Mass-produced, screen-printed, carbon-ink-based microtubular band (well) electrodes, suitable for routine sensing applications, have been fabricated and evaluated with respect to their theoretical and analytical performance. Microscopic examination of the electrode surface reveals they are inherently rough and could easily suffer from high and variable resistance, capacitance and area, unless care is taken to minimise these problems. Simulation models have been applied to analyse cyclic voltammetric responses obtained at the well electrodes. Results of these theoretical calculations further demonstrate the care needed with electrode design and resistance in carbon ink electrodes. Substantial differences in voltammetry when wells are produced by mechanically punching or laser drilling are considered. The application of multi- and single-frequency Fourier Transform ac voltammetry, previously applied to planar carbon ink disc electrodes for quality control purposes, is now demonstrated with respect to the microtubular band electrode geometry. Theoretical and practical limitations are discussed, as is the analytical application to the reversible \(\left[ {{\text{Ru}}\left( {{\text{NH}}_3 } \right)_6 } \right]^{3 + } + e^ - \rightleftharpoons \left[ {{\text{Ru}}\left( {{\text{NH}}_3 } \right)_6 } \right]^{2 + } \) redox couple in the presence of oxygen in aqueous solution.

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Acknowledgement

The authors acknowledge Stephen Feldberg for his helpful discussions.

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Correspondence to Alan M. Bond.

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Dedicated to Keith on his 80th birthday, a good friend and colleague.

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Konash, A., Harris, A.R., Zhang, J. et al. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of screen-printed tubular carbon ink disposable sensor well electrodes by dc and Fourier transformed ac voltammetry. J Solid State Electrochem 13, 551–563 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-008-0751-8

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-008-0751-8

Keywords

  • Screen-printed tubular band electrodes
  • Well electrodes
  • Fourier Transform ac voltammetry
  • Electrode performance