Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 197–202 | Cite as

Accuracy of two-dimensional pharyngeal airway space prediction for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery

  • Amanda Lury Yamashita
  • Lilian Cristina Vessoni Iwaki
  • Gustavo Nascimento de Souza Pinto
  • Bárbara Aline Gerke
  • Mariliani Chicarelli
  • Liogi Iwaki Filho
Original Article



The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of two-dimensional (2D) virtual surgical planning (VSP) of pharyngeal airway space (PAS) in patients submitted to bimaxillary orthognathic surgery.


This study was conducted with lateral cephalograms acquired through cone-beam computed tomography records of 33 patients, divided into group 1—patients submitted to maxillary advancement and mandibular setback (n = 17) and group 2—patients submitted to maxillomandibular advancement (n = 16). Records were taken 1 to 2 months prior to surgery, which was used to perform the 2D VSP (Tp), and 6 to 8 months after surgery (T1). In Dolphin Imaging software, the anteroposterior size of the PAS was calculated at the level of four craniometric points: A, occlusal plane (Mx), B, and pogonion (Pog). Two previously calibrated examiners performed these measurements. Statistical analyses were conducted using Kendall and t tests at a 5% level of significance.


There was a concordance between the two examiners at all points and times. In group 1, points A and B have statistically significant differences between the PAS measurements performed in Tp and T1, while in group 2, none of the PAS points showed statistically significant differences when comparing Tp to T1.


2D computer-based cephalometric prediction in Dolphin Imaging software offers a good orientation to professionals during the surgical procedure of bimaxillary surgeries since its use is considered clinically relevant in daily practice.


Orthognathic surgery Virtual surgical planning Pharynx Mandibular advancement 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

For this type of study (retrospective study) formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda Lury Yamashita
    • 1
  • Lilian Cristina Vessoni Iwaki
    • 1
  • Gustavo Nascimento de Souza Pinto
    • 2
  • Bárbara Aline Gerke
    • 1
  • Mariliani Chicarelli
    • 1
  • Liogi Iwaki Filho
    • 1
  1. 1.Dentistry DepartmentState University of MaringáParanáBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Oral Diagnosis, Area of Oral Radiology, Piracicaba Dental SchoolUniversity of CampinasPiracicabaBrazil

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