Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 221–228 | Cite as

Distraction histogenesis of the maxillofacial region

  • Aydin Gülses
  • Metin Sencimen
  • Mustafa Ayna
  • Matthias Gierloff
  • Yahya Açil
Review Article


The changes in the surrounding soft tissues during long bone distraction in orthopedic surgery have been the subject of several reports, studies on changes in the craniofacial region, in which various tissues, including the skin, muscle, tendon, blood vessel, and gingiva are rare. Therefore, there is a need for studies on the soft tissue aspects of bone lengthening of the craniofacial region. The aim of this review was to address this issue by reviewing the literature about the distraction histogenesis of various tissues, including skin, muscle, blood vessel, nerve, and gingiva.


Distraction Osteogenesis Histogenesis Maxillofacial 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aydin Gülses
    • 1
  • Metin Sencimen
    • 2
  • Mustafa Ayna
    • 3
  • Matthias Gierloff
    • 4
  • Yahya Açil
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre of Dentistry and Oral HealthMevki Military HospitalAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryGulhane Military Medical AcademyAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Private PracticeDuisburgGermany
  4. 4.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryChristian Albrechts UniversityKielGermany

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