Arsenic prevalence in the environment impelled many organisms to develop resistance over the course of evolution. Tolerance to arsenic, either as the pentavalent [As(V)] form or the trivalent form [As(III)], by bacteria has been well studied in prokaryotes, and the mechanism of action is well defined. However, in the rod-shaped arsenic tolerant Deinococcus indicus DR1, the key enzyme, arsenate reductase (ArsC) has not been well studied. ArsC of D. indicus belongs to the Grx-linked prokaryotic arsenate reductase family. While it shares homology with the well-studied ArsC of Escherichia coli having a catalytic cysteine (Cys 12) and arginine triad (Arg 60, 94, and 107), the active site of D.indicus ArsC contains four residues Glu 9, Asp 53, Arg 86, and Glu 100, and with complete absence of structurally equivalent residue for crucial Cys 12. Here, we report that the mechanism of action of ArsC of D. indicus is different as a result of convergent evolution and most likely able to detoxify As(V) using a mix of positively- and negatively-charged residues in its active site, unlike the residues of E. coli. This suggests toward the possibility of an alternative mechanism of As (V) degradation in bacteria.
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PAS, VA, and RMY acknowledge Jaypee University of Information Technology for providing research facilities to conduct this study. RP acknowledges Shiv Nadar University for providing research facilities and DC is supported by a doctoral research fellowship from Shiv Nadar University.
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Chauhan, D., Srivastava, P.A., Agnihotri, V. et al. Structure and function prediction of arsenate reductase from Deinococcus indicus DR1. J Mol Model 25, 15 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00894-018-3885-3
- Arsenate reductase
- Deinococcus indicus DR1
- Mechanism of action
- Arsenic tolerance
- Molecular modeling