Effect of donor strength of extended alkyl auxiliary groups on optoelectronic and charge transport properties of novel naphtha[2,1-b:6,5-b′]difuran derivatives: simple yet effective strategy

  • Aijaz Rasool Chaudhry
  • R. Ahmed
  • Ahmad Irfan
  • A. Shaari
  • Ahmad Radzi Mat Isa
  • Shabbir Muhammad
  • Abdullah G. Al-Sehemi
Original Paper


The present study spotlights the designing of new derivatives of 2,7-bis (4-octylphenyl) naphtho [2,1-b:6,5-b′] difuran (C8-DPNDF) by substituting the alkyl groups (methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, and heptyl groups) at para position. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods are employed to optimize the molecular structures in ground and first excited states, respectively. Several electro-optical properties including hole/electron reorganization energies (λhe), electron affinities (EAs), ionization potentials (IPs), molecular electrostatic potentials (MEP), and frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) have been evaluated. Furthermore their transfer integrals and intrinsic mobilities values have also been calculated. From this study, it is found that hole mobility of octyl containing derivative is raised to 4.69 cm2 V−1 s−1. Moreover with attaching octyl group, hole transfer integral values have also been enhanced in newly designed derivatives. The balanced hole and electron reorganization energies, and improved transfer integrals lead to enhanced mobility in derivatives with octyl group, highlighting them as an efficient hole transfer material. Unlike the other electro-optical properties, the intrinsic hole mobility has increased because of transfer integral values of octyl containing derivative C8-DPNDF due to the dense and close crystal packing of C8-DPNDF. However, photostability of furan-based materials has not changed by increasing length of extended alkyl chain. Thus our present investigation highlights the importance of alkyl auxiliary groups that are often neglected/replaced with simple methyl group to save computation costs.

Graphical Abstract

The hole and electron reorganization energies of naphtho[2,1-b:6,5-b']difuran derivatives


Alkyl auxiliary groups Frontier molecular orbitals Mobility Molecular electrostatic potentials Optoelectronic 



The authors are thankful to the Ministry of the Education/Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for providing funding via project Q.J130000.2526.06H15 for the successful execution of this project and the King Khalid University (KKU) for providing the support and research facilities to complete this research study.

Supplementary material

894_2015_2743_MOESM1_ESM.docx (313 kb)
Fig. S1 (DOCX 312 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aijaz Rasool Chaudhry
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • R. Ahmed
    • 1
  • Ahmad Irfan
    • 3
    • 5
  • A. Shaari
    • 1
  • Ahmad Radzi Mat Isa
    • 1
  • Shabbir Muhammad
    • 2
    • 5
  • Abdullah G. Al-Sehemi
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceUniversiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM SkudaiJohorMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceKing Khalid UniversityAbhaSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceKing Khalid UniversityAbhaSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Unit of Science and Technology, Faculty of ScienceKing Khalid UniversityAbhaSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Research Center for Advance Materials ScienceKing Khalid UniversityAbhaSaudi Arabia

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