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Computer-aided molecular design of 1H-imidazole-2,4-diamine derivatives as potential inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum DHFR enzyme

Abstract

Design and discovery of new potential inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR), equally active against both the wild-type and mutant strains, is urgently needed. In this study, a computer-aided molecular design approach that involved ab initio molecular orbital and density functional theory calculations, along with molecular electrostatic potential analysis, and molecular docking studies was employed to design 15 1H-imidazole-2,4-diamine derivatives as potential inhibitors of PfDHFR enzyme. Visual inspection of the binding modes of the compounds demonstrated that they all interact, via H-bond interactions, with key amino acid residues (Asp54, Ileu/Leu164, Asn/Ser108 and Ile14) similar to those of WR99210 (3) in the active site of the enzymes used in the study. These interactions are known to be essential for enzyme inhibition. These compounds showed better or comparable binding affinities to that of the bound ligand (WR99210). In silico toxicity predictions, carried out using TOPKAT software, also indicated that the compounds are non-toxic.

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Acknowledgement

L.A. thanks The Government of Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia for financial support.

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Correspondence to Prasad V. Bharatam.

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Adane, L., Bharatam, P.V. Computer-aided molecular design of 1H-imidazole-2,4-diamine derivatives as potential inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum DHFR enzyme. J Mol Model 17, 657–667 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00894-010-0756-y

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Keyword

  • Plasmodium falciparum
  • Dihydrofolate reductase enzyme inhibitor
  • 1H-imidazole-2,4-diamine derivatives
  • Computer-aided molecular design