Molecular modeling and biophysical analysis of the c-MYC NHE-III1 silencer element
G-Quadruplex and i-Motif-forming sequences in the promoter regions of several oncogenes show promise as targets for the regulation of oncogenes. In this study, molecular models were created for the c-MYC NHE-III1 (nuclease hypersensitivity element III1) from two 39-base complementary sequences. The NHE modeled here consists of single folded conformers of the polypurine intramolecular G-Quadruplex and the polypyrimidine intramolecular i-Motif structures, flanked by short duplex DNA sequences. The G-Quadruplex was based on published NMR structural data for the c-MYC 1:2:1 loop isomer. The i-Motif structure is theoretical (with five cytosine–cytosine pairs), where the central intercalated cytosine core interactions are based on NMR structural data obtained for a tetramolecular [d(A2C4)4] model i-Motif. The loop structures are in silico predictions of the c-MYC i-motif loops. The porphyrin meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4), as well as the ortho and meta analogs TMPyP2 and TMPyP3, were docked to six different locations in the complete c-MYC NHE. Comparisons are made for drug binding to the NHE and the isolated G-Quadruplex and i-Motif structures. NHE models both with and without bound cationic porphyrin were simulated for 100 ps using molecular dynamics techniques, and the non-bonded interaction energies between the DNA and porphyrins calculated for all of the docking interactions.
KeywordsG-quadruplex i-Motif Oncogenes c-MYC Silencer element NHE III1 TMPyP4
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