Mapping metadata to DDC classification structures for searching and browsing

Abstract

In this paper, we introduce a metadata visual interface based on metadata aggregation and automatic classification mapping. We demonstrate that it is possible to aggregate metadata records from multiple unrelated repositories, enhance them through automatic classification, and present them in a unified visual interface. The main features of the interface include dynamic querying using DDC classes as filters, interactive visual views of search results and related DDC classes, and drill-down options for searching and browsing in different levels of details. The interface was tested in a user study of 30 subjects. A comparison was done on three modules of the interface, namely ‘search interface’, ‘hierarchical interface’, and ‘visual interface.’ The results indicate that subjects performed well with all the three interfaces, and they had more positive experience with the hierarchical interface than with the search interface and the visual interface.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. 1.

    Lin, X., Ahn, J.W.: Challenges of knowledge structure visualization. In: Classification and visualization: interfaces to knowledge: Proceedings of the International UDC Seminar, October 24-25, 2013, The Hague, The Netherlands. Ergon Verlag, 2013 (2013)

  2. 2.

    Johnson, B., Shneiderman, B.: Tree-maps: a space-filling approach to the visual-ization of hierarchical information structures. In: VIS ’91: Proceedings of the 2nd conference on visualization ’91. pp. 284–291. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, USA. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=949654 (1991)

  3. 3.

    Sintek, M.: Ontoviz, http://protegewiki.stanford.edu/wiki/OntoViz. Accessed Nov 2016

  4. 4.

    Grefenstette, G.: Explorations in automatic thesaurus discovery. Springer, New York (1994)

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Koopman, R., Wang, S., Scharnhorst, A.: Contextualization of topics—browsing through terms, authors, journals and cluster allocations. In: Proceedings of 15th international conference on scientometrics and informetrics. Istanbul, Turkey (2015)

  6. 6.

    Kleiberg, E., Van De Wetering, H., Van Wijk, J.J.: Botanical visualization of huge hierarchies. In: Information visualization, IEEE symposium on. pp. 87–87. IEEE Computer Society (2001)

  7. 7.

    OCLC.: Introduction to the Dewey Decimal Classification. http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/oclc/dewey/versions/print/intro.pdf. Accessed Nov 2016

  8. 8.

    Sweeney, R.: The development of the Dewey decimal classification. J. Doc. 39(3), 192–205 (1983)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Pollitt, A.S., Tinker, A.J.: Enhanced view-based searching through the decomposition of Dewey decimal classification codes. In: Proceedings of the sixth international conference of the International Society for Knowledge Organization, 10–13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada. Eds. C. Beghtol, L. Howarth and N. J. Williamson. Würzburg: Ergon Verlag, 2000. (Advances in Knowledge Organization 7). 288–294 (2000)

  10. 10.

    Chowdhury, S., Chowdhury, G.: Using DDC to create a visual knowledge map as an aid to online information retrieval. In: 8th international ISKO conference: knowledge organization and the Global Information Society, 2004-07-13 - 2004-07-16, London. http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/2624/1/strathprints002624.pdf (2004). Accessed Nov 2016

  11. 11.

    Vizine-Goetz, D.: Dewey browser. Catal. Classif. Q. 42(3–4), 213–220 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Digging into data challenge.: http://diggingintodata.org/. Accessed Nov 2016

  13. 13.

    Khoo, M., Ahn, J.W., Binding, C., Jones, H., Lin, X., Massam, D., Tudhope, D.: Augmenting Dublin core digital library metadata with Dewey decimal classification. J. Doc. 71(5), 976–998 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Khoo, M., Tudhope, D., Binding, C., Jones, H., Orrego, I.: “OAI-PMH and metadata aggregation from heterogeneous digital libraries: three case studies”, iConference, Fort Worth, TX, February 12–15, pp. 497–501. www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/42563 (2013). Accessed Nov 2016

  15. 15.

    Frant, iK, Ananiadou, S., Mima, H.: Automatic recognition of multi-word terms. Int. J. Digit. Libr. 3(2), 117–132 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Khoo, M., Tudhope, D., Binding, C., Abels, E., Lin, X., Massam, D.: Towards digital repository interoperability: the document indexing and semantic tagging interface for libraries (DISTIL). In: Zaphiris, P., Buchanan, G., Rasmussen, E., Loizides, F. (eds.) Theory and practice of digital libraries, lecture notes in computer science, vol. 7489, pp. 439–444. Springer, Berlin (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33290-6_49. Accessed Nov 2016

  17. 17.

    Voorhees, E.: The TREC-8 question answering track report. In: Voorhees, E.M., Harman, D.K. (eds), Proceedings of the 8th Text Retrieval Conference, NIST Special Publication 500-246, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersberg, MD, pp. 77–82. http://trec.nist.gov/pubs/trec8/t8_proceedings.html (1999). Accessed 10 Jun 2016

  18. 18.

    Jacomy, M., Heymann, S., Venturini, T., Bastian, M.: Forceatlas2, a continuous graph layout algorithm for handy network visualization designed for the Gephi software. PLOS One. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098679 (2014). Accessed Nov 2016

  19. 19.

    Eades, P.: A heuristic for graph drawing. Congr. Numer. 42, 149–160 (1984)

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Khoo, M., Massam, D., Jones, H.: “I Go Into a Lot of Different Places to Get my Research”: graduate students’ mental models of research tools. iConference, California (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Khoo, M., Hall, C.: Managing metadata: networks of practice, technological frames, and technical work in a digital library. Inf. Org. 23(2), 81–106 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Whitelaw, M.: Generous interfaces for digital cultural collections. Digit. Hum. Q. 9(1). http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/9/1/000205/000205.html (2015). Accessed Nov 2016

  23. 23.

    Nielsen, J.: Tabs, used right. Nielsen Norman Group. https://www.nngroup.com/articles/tabs-used-right/ (2007). Accessed Nov 2016

  24. 24.

    Zeng, M.L.: Knowledge organization systems. Knowl. Org. 35(2–3), 160–182 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xia Lin.

Appendices

Appendix A

Sample wireframe interfaces used for the focused group studies.

figurea

Appendix B

The search tasks used in the experiment:

  1. 1.

    Please find best Web resources that a high school student should read when working on a paper for nuclear testing sites and its impact to the environments. What DDC classes would be useful for this topic?

  2. 2.

    You have been asked to prepare a class project on the water cycle, and to identify some of the current environmental, social, political, and other issues associated with different stages of the water cycle. Please identify relevant web resources and DDC classes.

  3. 3.

    Hurricane Katrina was one of the largest storms to make landfall in the United States, and the costliest in terms of damage to New Orleans and other places. Your project is to collect information for writing a timeline for Hurricane Katrina. The timeline should not just focus on the storm itself, but also look at such issues as the history of New Orleans, the social and political issues that were raised after the storm, the reconstruction, how the storm has been remembered, how the storm has affected peoples’ lives today, and so on.

Appendix C

Post-search questionnaire. Each Interface (Search interface, Tree interface, and Visual interface) has a customized post-questionnaire with similar questions. Below is the questionnaire for the Visual Interface.

figureb

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lin, X., Khoo, M., Ahn, J. et al. Mapping metadata to DDC classification structures for searching and browsing. Int J Digit Libr 18, 25–39 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00799-016-0197-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Metadata integration
  • Automatic classification mapping
  • Dewey decimal classification
  • Visual interface design
  • Visualization interfaces