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X3ML mapping framework for information integration in cultural heritage and beyond

Abstract

The aggregation of heterogeneous data from different institutions in cultural heritage and e-science has the potential to create rich data resources useful for a range of different purposes, from research to education and public interests. In this paper, we present the X3ML framework, a framework for information integration that handles effectively and efficiently the steps involved in schema mapping, uniform resource identifier (URI) definition and generation, data transformation, provision and aggregation. The framework is based on the X3ML mapping definition language for describing both schema mappings and URI generation policies and has a lot of advantages when compared with other relevant frameworks. We describe the architecture of the framework as well as details on the various available components. Usability aspects are discussed and performance metrics are demonstrated. The high impact of our work is verified via the increasing number of international projects that adopt and use this framework.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    http://americanart.si.edu/.

  2. 2.

    http://www.europeana.eu/.

  3. 3.

    http://www.cidoc-crm.org/who_we_are.html.

  4. 4.

    http://www.cidoc-crm.org/docs/SRM_v1.4.pdf.

  5. 5.

    http://www.ics.forth.gr/isl/OEAWcoins-Published.

    Fig. 3
    figure3

    Mapping relational data to CIDOC CRM

  6. 6.

    http://www.ics.forth.gr/isl/3M/.

  7. 7.

    Through the 3M component.

  8. 8.

    http://www.ics.forth.gr/isl/3M-PublishedMappings/.

  9. 9.

    https://github.com/isl/Reasoner.

  10. 10.

    https://jena.apache.org/.

  11. 11.

    http://www.exist-db.org/exist/apps/homepage/index.html.

  12. 12.

    http://x-stream.github.io/.

  13. 13.

    https://github.com/jOOQ/jOOX.

  14. 14.

    https://github.com/damnhandy/Handy-URI-Templates.

  15. 15.

    http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/.

  16. 16.

    http://www.w3schools.com/css/css3_intro.asp.

  17. 17.

    https://jquery.com/.

  18. 18.

    https://angularjs.org/.

  19. 19.

    http://getbootstrap.com/.

  20. 20.

    https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/community/eupl/og_page/eupl.

  21. 21.

    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.

  22. 22.

    http://www.researchspace.org/.

  23. 23.

    http://www.getty.edu/museum/.

  24. 24.

    http://www.pch.gc.ca/eng/1266037002102.

  25. 25.

    http://www.yale.edu/.

  26. 26.

    http://www.frick.org/.

  27. 27.

    Some feedback from the USA workshop as published in the call of the UK workshop can be found at http://www.researchspace.org/home/project-updates/cidoccrmmappingworkshopatoxforduniversity.

  28. 28.

    http://www.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk.

  29. 29.

    http://archeoroma.beniculturali.it/en.

  30. 30.

    http://arachne.uni-koeln.de/drupal/.

  31. 31.

    http://vast-lab.org.

  32. 32.

    http://www.parthenos-project.eu/.

  33. 33.

    http://mapping-d-parthenos.d4science.org/3M/.

  34. 34.

    http://www.mayaarch3d.org.

  35. 35.

    The experiments were carried out on a PC with an Intel i7 processor, 8GB RAM, running Windows 7 32 bit.

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Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the following projects: ARIADNE (FP7 Research Infrastructures, 2013–2017), PARTHENOS (H2020 Research Infrastructures, 2015–2019), BlueBRIDGE (H2020 Research Infrastructures, 2015–2018), and VRE4EIC (H2020 Research Infrastructures, 2015–2018). The authors would also like to thank Nikos Anyfantis for working with the Source and Target Analyzer components and Korina Doerr for designing the user interfaces of the X3ML framework.

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Correspondence to Yannis Marketakis.

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Marketakis, Y., Minadakis, N., Kondylakis, H. et al. X3ML mapping framework for information integration in cultural heritage and beyond. Int J Digit Libr 18, 301–319 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00799-016-0179-1

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Keywords

  • Data mappings
  • Schema matching
  • Data aggregation
  • URI generation
  • Information integration