, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 347–357 | Cite as

Alkaline soda Lake Velika Rusanda (Serbia): the first insight into diatom diversity of this extreme saline lake

  • Danijela VidakovićEmail author
  • Jelena Krizmanić
  • Biljana P. Dojčinović
  • Ana Pantelić
  • Bojan Gavrilović
  • Milica Živanović
  • Boris Novaković
  • Miloš Ćirić
Original Paper


Alkaline soda lakes are unique habitats found in specific geographic regions, usually with dry climate. The Carpathian Basin is one of those regions very important for habitat and biodiversity conservation in Europe, with natural soda lakes found in Austria, Hungary and Serbia. In comparison to other two countries from Central Europe, algal biodiversity studies of saline soda lakes in Serbia are scarce. Lake Velika Rusanda has the highest measured salinity of all saline lakes in the Carpathian Basin and there were no reports of its diatom species richness and diversity till now. We conducted 2-year investigation programme to study biodiversity and seasonal dynamics of diatoms in this lake. A total of 27 diatom taxa were found, almost all of them attached to reed and much less in benthos and plankton. Five new diatom species for Serbia were recorded, Craticula halopannonica, Navicymbula pusilla, Hantzschia weyprechtii, Nitzschia thermaloides and Navicula staffordiae. The last mentioned is new for Europe as well. Lake Velika Rusanda is inhabited mostly by alkaliphilous and halophilic diatoms. Since diatoms are used as bioindicators in soda lakes, our results will improve their further application in ecological status assessment of these fragile habitats in the Carpathian Basin.


The Carpathian Basin Soda waters Plankton Epipelon Epilithon Epiphytic diatoms 



This study was financially supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development (Grant No. OI172001). Finally, we would like to thank to Ranko Perić and dr Aleksandra Vesić for their assistance in the field and dr Zlatko Levkov on identification help.


  1. APHA, AWWA, WPCF (1995a) Method 2320 B. In: Eaton AD, Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE (eds) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington, pp 2–26Google Scholar
  2. APHA, AWWA, WPCF (1995b) Method 4500-Cl B. In: Eaton AD, Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE (eds) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington, pp 4–49Google Scholar
  3. APHA, AWWA, WPCF (1995c) Method 4500-SO4 2− C. In: Eaton AD, Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE (eds) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington, pp 4–135Google Scholar
  4. Bahls LL (2012) Seven new species in Navicula sensu stricto from the Northern Great Plains and Northern Rocky Mountains. Nova Hedwig Beih 141:19–37Google Scholar
  5. Blinn DW (1993) Diatom community structure along physicochemical gradients in saline lakes. Ecology 74:1246–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boros E, Kolpakova M (2018) A review of the defining chemical properties of soda lakes and pans: an assessment on a large geographic scale of Eurasian inland saline surface waters. PLoS One 13(8):e0202205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boros E, Ecsedi Z, Olàh J (2014a) Ecology and management of soda pans in the Carpathian Basin. Hortobágy Environmental Association, BalmazújvárosGoogle Scholar
  8. Boros E, Zs Horváth, Wolfram G, Vörös L (2014b) Salinity and ionic composition of the shallow astatic soda pans in the Carpathian Basin. Ann Limnol-Int J Lim 50:59–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. El Hamouti N, Gibert Beotas L (2012) Distribution of diatoms in the Baza Lacustrine system, SE, Spain. Quaternaire 23(3):253–260Google Scholar
  10. Felföldi T, Somogyi B, Márialigeti K, Vörös L (2009) Characterization of photoautotrophic picoplankton assemblages in alkaline lakes of the Carpathian Basin (Central Europe). J Limnol 68(2):385–395. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gavrilović B, Ćirić M, Vesić A, Vidaković D, Novaković B, Živanović M (2018) Biodiversity overview of soda pans in the Vojvodina region (Serbia). J Geogr Inst Jovan Cvijic SASA 68(2):195–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grant WD (2006) Alkaline environments and biodiversity. In: Gerday C, Glansdorff N (eds) Extremophilies, (Life under extreme environmental condition), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO. EOLSS Publishers, Oxford, UK,
  13. Hammer UT (1986) Saline lake ecosystems of the world. Dr W. Junk Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  14. Institute for Nature Conservation of Vojvodina Province (2011) Studija zaštite: Park Prirode “Rusanda”—Predlog za stavljanje pod zaštitu kao zaštićenog područja II kategorije. Novi Sad, Srbija, pp. 188. (in Serbian)Google Scholar
  15. Joh G (2014) The diverse species of the genus Hantzschia (Bacillariophyta) in sand flats of the Nakdong River estuary in Korea. J Ecol Environ 37(4):245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krammer K (2003) Cymbopleura, Delicata, Navicymbula, Gomphocymbellopsis, Afrocymbella. In: Lange-Bertalot H (ed) Diatoms of Europe, Diatoms of the European Inland waters and comparable habitats, Vol. 4. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Rugell, pp 1–529Google Scholar
  17. Krammer K, Lange-Bertalot H (1988) Bacillariophyceae. 2. Teil: Bacillariaceae, Epithemiaceae, Surirellaceae. In: Ettl H, Gerloff J, Heynig H, Mollenhauer D (eds) Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, 2/2. G. Fischer, Stuttgart, pp 1–596Google Scholar
  18. Krizmanić J, Subakov–Simić G, Cvijan M, Karadžić V (2008) Diatoms of the three salt marshes in Vojvodina (Serbia). Abstract book. 20th International Diatom Symposium, Dubrovnik, CroatiaGoogle Scholar
  19. Lange-Bertalot H (2001) Navicula sensu stricto. 10 genera separated from Navicula sensu lato. Frustulia. In: Lange-Bertalot H (ed) Diatoms of Europe: diatoms of the European inland waters and comparable habitats, Vol. 2. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag. K.G., Ruggell, pp 1–526Google Scholar
  20. Lange-Bertalot H, Hofmann G, Werum M, Cantonati M (2017) Freshwater benthic diatoms of Central Europe: over 800 common species used in ecological assessments. Koeltz Botanical Books, Schmitten-Oberreifenberg (English edition with updated taxonomy and added species) Google Scholar
  21. Lengyel E, Padisák J, Hajnal É, Szabó B, Pellinger A, Stenger-Kovács C (2016) Application of benthic diatoms to assess efficiency of conservation management: a case study on the example of three reconstructed soda pans, Hungary. Hydrobiologia 777(1):95–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Petrović G (1980) On the chemistry of some salt lakes and ponds in Yugoslavia. Hydrobiologia 81:195–200Google Scholar
  23. Potapova M (2011) Navicymbula pusilla. Diatoms of the United States. Accessed 21 Mar 2018
  24. Ros MD, Marín-Murcia JP, Aboal M (2009) Biodiversity of diatom assemblages in a Mediterranean semiarid stream: implications for conservation. Mar Freshw Res 60(1):14–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Stanković S (2005) Lakes of Serbia. Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva, Belgrade (in Serbian) Google Scholar
  26. Stenger-Kovács C, Hajnal É, Lengyel E, Buczkó K, Padisák J (2016) A test of traditional diversity measures and taxonomic distinctness indices on benthic diatoms of soda pans in the Carpathian basin. Ecol Indic 64:1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Subakov–Simić G, Plemić N, Karadžić V, Cvijan M, Krizmanić J (2004) Qualitative and quantitative composition of the Slatina near Opovo. 33th Annual conference of the Yugoslav Water Pollution Control Society “Water 2004”, Conference Proceedings. Borsko jezero, Serbia, pp. 327–330 (in Serbian) Google Scholar
  28. Taylor JC, Harding WR, Archibald CGM (2007) WRC Report TT 281/07: A methods manual for the collection, preparation and analysis of diatom samples version 1.0. Water Research Commission, The Republic of South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  29. Toudjani AA, Celekli A, Gümüş EY, Kayhan S, Lekesiz HÖ, Çetin T (2017) A new diatom index to assess ecological quality of running waters: a case study of water bodies in western Anatolia. Ann Limnol-Int J Lim 53:333–343. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Van Dam H, Mertens A, Sinkeldam J (1994) A coded checklist and ecological indicator values of freshwater diatoms from the Netherlands. Neth J Aquat Ecol 28(1):117–133. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Veres AJ, Pienitz R, Smol JP (1995) Lake water salinity and periphytic diatom succession in three subarctic lakes, Yukon Territory, Canada. Arctic 48(1):63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vuković A, Vujadinović M, Rendulić S, Đurđević V, Ruml M, Babić V, Popović D (2018) Global warming impact on climate change in Serbia for the period 1961–2100. Therm Sci. Google Scholar
  33. Williams WD (2002) Environmental threats to salt lakes and the likely status of inland saline ecosystems in 2025. Environ Conserv 29:154–167. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Żelazna-Wieczorek J, Olszyński RM, Nowicka-Krawczyk P (2015) Half a century of research on diatoms in athalassic habitats in central Poland. Oceanol Hydrobiol Stud 44(1):51–67Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of ChemistryBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden ‘‘Jevremovac’’BelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and MetallurgyBelgradeSerbia
  4. 4.University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Centre of Excellence in Environmental Chemistry and EngineeringBelgradeSerbia
  5. 5.Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Geographical Institute “Jovan Cvijić”Department of Physical GeographyBelgradeSerbia
  6. 6.University of Belgrade, Faculty of GeographyBelgradeSerbia
  7. 7.The Serbian Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Republic of SerbiaBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations