, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 319–326 | Cite as

Response of neutrophilic Shewanella violacea to acid stress: growth rate, organic acid production, and gene expression

  • Lisa Lisdiana
  • Hisashi Ômura
  • Sotaro Fujii
  • Yoshihiro SambongiEmail author
Original Paper


Neutrophilic Shewanella violacea is isolated from deep-sea sediments and its response to high pressure and high salinity has been investigated. Here, the pure effects of acidic pH on S. violacea physiology were examined, aiming at further understanding of its stress response mechanism. S. violacea could grow at initial pH of 5.0–7.0 without pH adjustment during the test at atmospheric pressure, and the lowest growth rate was obtained at pH 5.0. The pH of the same growth culture with an initial pH of 5.0 rose toward a neutral pH of ~ 7.0 at the exponential growth phase, indicating that S. violacea has a mechanism for acid neutralization. When S. violacea cells were grown at the fixed pH of 5.0, about five times higher concentrations of butyric and isovaleric acids were produced than at pH 7.0. The expression level of the genes encoding three enzymes for isovaleric acid synthesis from l-leucine was also found to be upregulated in S. violacea cells grown at the fixed pH of 5.0 compared with at pH 7.0 through RNA-seq analysis. Therefore, S. violacea at least produces isovaleric acid in its response to acid stress, which further deepens our understanding of the stress response mechanism inherent in this bacterium.


Acid neutralization Acid stress Isovaleric acid pH Shewanella violacea 



Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry



This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (Nos. 26240045 and 16K07692 to Y.S.), a Grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 25–1446 to S.F.), and a Grant-in-Aid for Fundamental Research from the Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University to S.F. L.L. was very grateful to the Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education, Ministry of Finance, Republic of Indonesia, for the scholarship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

792_2019_1083_MOESM1_ESM.docx (150 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 150 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa Lisdiana
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hisashi Ômura
    • 1
  • Sotaro Fujii
    • 1
  • Yoshihiro Sambongi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Graduate School of Biosphere ScienceHiroshima UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversitas Negeri SurabayaSurabayaIndonesia

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