, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 305–317 | Cite as

Temperature adaptation of DNA ligases from psychrophilic organisms

  • Kristel Berg
  • Ingar Leiros
  • Adele WilliamsonEmail author
Original Paper


DNA ligases operating at low temperatures have potential advantages for use in biotechnological applications. For this reason, we have characterized the temperature optima and thermal stabilities of three minimal Lig E-type ATP-dependent DNA ligase originating from Gram-negative obligate psychrophilic bacteria. The three ligases, denoted Vib-Lig, Psy-Lig, and Par-Lig, show a remarkable range of thermal stabilities and optima, with the first bearing all the hallmarks of a genuinely cold-adapted enzyme, while the latter two have activity and stability profiles more typical of mesophilic proteins. A comparative approach based on sequence comparison and homology modeling indicates that the cold-adapted features of Vib-Lig may be ascribed to differences in surface charge rather than increased local or global flexibility which is consistent with the contemporary emerging paradigm of the physical basis of cold adaptation of enzymes.


ATP-dependent DNA ligase Psychrophile Enzyme activity Temperature optima 



This research was supported by Research Council Norway [244247, 2015]; Funding for open access charge was granted by the publication fund at the University of Tromsø.

Supplementary material

792_2019_1082_MOESM1_ESM.docx (773 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 772 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryThe University of Tromsø- The Arctic University of NorwayTromsøNorway

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