, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 221–231 | Cite as

Genome sequencing and heterologous expression of antiporters reveal alkaline response mechanisms of Halomonas alkalicola

  • Lei Zhai
  • Jiuyan Xie
  • Yafang Lin
  • Kun Cheng
  • Lijiang Wang
  • Feng Yue
  • Jingyan Guo
  • Jiquan LiuEmail author
  • Su YaoEmail author
Original Paper


Halomonas alkalicola CICC 11012s is an alkaliphilic and halotolerant bacterium isolated from a soap-making tank (pH > 10) from a household-product plant. This strain can propagate at pH 12.5, which is fatal to most bacteria. Genomic analysis revealed that the genome size was 3,511,738 bp and contained 3295 protein-coding genes, including a complete cell wall and plasma membrane lipid biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, four putative Na+/H+ and K+/H+ antiporter genes, or gene clusters, designated as HaNhaD, HaNhaP, HaMrp and HaPha, were identified within the genome. Heterologous expression of these genes in antiporter-deficient Escherichia coli indicated that HaNhaD, an Na+/H+ antiporter, played a dominant role in Na+ tolerance and pH homeostasis in acidic, neutral and alkaline environments. In addition, HaMrp exhibited Na+ tolerance; however, it functioned mainly in alkaline conditions. Both HaNhaP and HaPha were identified as K+/H+ antiporters that played an important role in high alkalinity and salinity. In summary, genome analysis and heterologous expression experiments demonstrated that a complete set of adaptive strategies have been developed by the double extremophilic strain CICC 11012s in response to alkalinity and salinity. Specifically, four antiporters exhibiting different physiological roles for different situations worked together to support the strain in harsh surroundings.


Halomonas alkalicola Alkalinity Na+ (K+)/H+antiporter NhaD 



This work was supported by the Fund of National Infrastructure of Microbial Resources (No. NIMR2017-4). The authors thank Professor Yanfen Xue (Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China) and Professor Jun Liu (Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, China) for kindly providing E. coli KNabc strain and E. coli TK2420 strain.

Supplementary material

792_2017_991_MOESM1_ESM.docx (186 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 186 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lei Zhai
    • 1
  • Jiuyan Xie
    • 1
  • Yafang Lin
    • 2
  • Kun Cheng
    • 1
  • Lijiang Wang
    • 2
  • Feng Yue
    • 2
  • Jingyan Guo
    • 2
  • Jiquan Liu
    • 3
    Email author
  • Su Yao
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.China Center of Industrial Culture Collection (CICC)China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation IndustriesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Procter & Gamble Technologies (Beijing) LtdBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Procter & Gamble International Operations SA Singapore BranchSingaporeSingapore

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