, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 767–774

An ICEBs1-like element may be associated with the extreme radiation and desiccation resistance of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00792-013-0559-z

Cite this article as:
Tirumalai, M.R. & Fox, G.E. Extremophiles (2013) 17: 767. doi:10.1007/s00792-013-0559-z


Comparisons of the genomes of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and the closely related type strain, B. pumilus ATCC7061T, exposed an extended region of non-homologous genes. A detailed examination of this region revealed the presence of an ICEBs1-like integrative conjugative element in SAFR-032. A similar element was subsequently located elsewhere in the ATCC7061T genome. A detailed comparison of these elements and the ICEBs1 of B. subtilis revealed extremely rapid flux in gene content, genome organization and sequence similarity. It is not clear if the B. pumilus elements as they are currently structured are functional. However, it is clear that the past involvement of these elements has brought multiple genes of unknown function to the SAFR-032 genome and these genes may be responsible for the rapid evolution that led to the extreme radiation and desiccation resistance of this organism’s spores.


Genome analysis Comparative genomics Radiation resistance Planetary protection Integrative conjugative elements 



Integrative and conjugative element


Bacillus pumilus strain SAFR-032


Bacillus pumilus ATCC7061T


Bacillus subtilis


Hypothetical protein


Conserved hypothetical protein


Gene locus tag number for the type strain B. pumilus ATCC7061T


Gene locus tag number for B. pumilus SAFR-032

Supplementary material

792_2013_559_MOESM1_ESM.docx (290 kb)
Supplementary Figure S1 Supplementary Figure S2 Supplementary Table S1 (DOCX 289 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology and BiochemistryUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA

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