Five years after the military operation “Anfal” in Iraqi Kurdistan, 45 families were randomly selected among the survivors in two displacement camps. The Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms for Children (PTSS-C) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) were administered to the oldest child and the caregiver in each family, respectively. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was reported in 87% of children and 60% of their caregivers. While childhood PTSD was only significantly predicted by child trauma score and the duration of captivity, it was neither predicted by maternal PTSD nor did it disappear after the reunion with the PTSD-free father. However, the small sample size makes the results hypotheses rather than conclusive.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Accepted: 17 April 2000
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Ahmad, A., Sofi, M., Sundelin-Wahlsten, V. et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder in children after the military operation “Anfal” in Iraqi Kurdistan. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 9, 235–243 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1007/s007870070026
- Key words PTSD – Childhood trauma – Anfal – Man-made disaster – Kurdistan