Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Child and adolescent psychiatry training and mental health care in Southeast Europe

  • 179 Accesses

  • 3 Citations

Abstract

There is very limited information available on child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) training in the Southeast European (SEE) region. The objective of this study was to fill in this gap by presenting descriptive data on CAP training and national mental health services for children and adolescent in 11 SEE countries. On the initiative of World Psychiatric Association—CAP section, national CAP association boards from each SEE country allocated one member to the Consortium on Academic Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in SEE (CACAP SEE) in 2018. Using an internally distributed questionnaire, CACAP SEE members provided information on the CAP training structure and mental health care. Ten out of eleven SEE countries recognized CAP as a separate specialty. Duration of training did not differ much between the SEE countries. Other components were more variable (availability of rotations, overseas electives, and inclusion of psychotherapy). Ten countries were familiar with the CAP requirements of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS–CAP) and five provided the training in accordance with it. Nine countries had less than 36 board-certified child and adolescent psychiatrists practicing in the country. The number of general psychiatrists treating children and adolescents with mental disorders was higher than the number of CAP specialists in five of the countries. Although CAP was recognized as a separate specialty in the vast majority of SEE countries, there was a substantial variation among them in available CAP training. In most of the countries, there is a considerable lack of CAP specialists for several reasons, including loss of trained specialists to other countries.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Notes

  1. 1.

    *Kosovo is used in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999).

References

  1. 1.

    Simmons M, Barrett E, Wilkinson P, Pacherova L (2012) Trainee experiences of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) training in Europe: 2010-2011 survey of the European Survey of the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) CAP working group. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 21(8):433–442. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-012-0275-8

  2. 2.

    Karabekiroglu K, Doğang B, Herguener S, Salis T, Rothenberger A (2006) Child and adolescent psychiatry training in Europe: differences and challenges in harmonization. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 5:467–475

  3. 3.

    Barrett E, Jacobs B, Klasen H, Hergunner S, Hebebrand J. The child and adolescent psychiatry—study of training in Europe (CAP–STATE). Submitted

  4. 4.

    UEMS – CAP Web site: https://uemscap.eu. Accessed 4 Jan 2019

  5. 5.

    ESCAP Web site: https://www.escap.eu. Accessed 4 Jan 2019

  6. 6.

    EFPT Web site: https://www.efpt.eu. Accessed 4 Jan 2019

  7. 7.

    UEMS-CAP and B. Jacobs. Training Requirements for the Specialty of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2014; Available from: http://www.uemscap.eu/uploads/44/Training-Requirement-for-Child-adolescent-Psychiatry-approved_by_UEMS_Council_April_2014-pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2019

  8. 8.

    Remschmidt H, van Engeland H (1999) In: Remschmidt H, van Engeland H(eds) Child and adolescent psychiatry in Europe: historical development, current situation, future perspectives. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. ISBN 10: 3798511705 ISBN 13: 9783798511705

  9. 9.

    Pejovic-Milovancevic M, Miletic V, Anagnostopoulos D, Raleva M, Stancheva V, Burgic-Radmanovic M, Barac-Otasevic Z, Ispanovic V (2014) Management in child and adolescent psychiatry: How does it look in the Balkans? Psychiatriki 25(1):48–54

  10. 10.

    Boricevic Marsanic V, Dodig Curkovic K, Franic T (2016) The first Croatia congress on children and adolescents mental health: mental health of children and adolescents—an imperative for the future. WPA, Child Adolesc Psychiatry Section’s Off J 11:23–24

  11. 11.

    Drobnic Radobuljac M (2016) The state of child and adolescent psychiatry in Slovenia: a brief report. Eur Child Adolesc psychiatry 25:563–565

  12. 12.

    Gregoric Kumperscak H (2018) Child and adolescent psychiatry in Slovenia in comparison with other European countries. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-018-1232-y

  13. 13.

    Tomoya H, Guerrero A, Sartorius N, Fung D, Leventhal B, Ong SH, Kaneko H, Kim B, Cho SC, Skokauskas N (2015) Child and adolescent psychiatry in the far east. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 69:171–177

  14. 14.

    Hirota T, Guerrero A, Sartorius N, Fung D, Leventhal B, Ong SH, Kaneko H, Apinuntavech S, Bennett A, Bhoomikumar J, Cheon KA, Davaasuren O, Gau S, Hall B, Koren E, van Nguyen T, Oo T, Tan S, Tateno M, Thikeo M, Wiguna T, Wong M, Zheng Y, Skokauskas N (2018) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Far East; a 5-year follow up on the consortium on academic child and adolescent psychiatry in the far east (CACAP-FE) study. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12800 (Epub ahead of print)

  15. 15.

    Romanian Journal of child and adolescent psychiatry Web site:https://www.childandadolescentpsychiatry.ro/romanian-journal/. Accessed 4 Jan 2019

  16. 16.

    Journal of Hellenic child and adolescent psychiatry Web site: https://www.hscap.gr/neo-teyxos. Accessed 4 Jan 2019

  17. 17.

    Stimac D, Koetsier H, Pavic Simetin I, Petrea I (2017) Ensuring optimal health care for people with mental health disorders. Eu J of Pub Health: 27 (3). https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckx189.202

  18. 18.

    Christodoulou G, Ploumpidis D, Christodoulou N, Anagnostopoulos D (2010) Mental health profile of Greece. Int Psychiatry 7(3):64–67. https://doi.org/10.1192/S1749367600005877

  19. 19.

    European council on foreign relations. Alja Vracic (2018) The way back: brain drain and prosperity in the Western Balkans. https://www.ecfr.eu/publications/summary/the_way_back_brain_drain_and_prosperity_in_the_western_balkans.. Accessed 4 Jan 2019

  20. 20.

    Kosovo Ministry of Internal Affairs, “Migration Profile 2016”. http://mpb.rks-gov.net/. Accessed 4 Jan 2019

  21. 21.

    Boričević Maršanić V, Aukst Margetić B, Margetić B (2012) Outpatient treatment of children and adolescents with antidepressants in Croatia. Int J Psychiatry Clin Practice 16(3):214–222

  22. 22.

    Boričević Maršanić V, Dodig-Ćurković K, Juretić Z (2012) Outpatient treatment of children and adolescents with antipsychotic drugs in Croatia. Nord J Psychiatry 66(1):2–7

  23. 23.

    Key figures on Europe 2017 edition—European Commission. Publications office of the European Union, Luxembourg. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained

  24. 24.

    World bank data. Web site: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD. Accessed 4 Jan 2019

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to H. Gregoric Kumperscak.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

This article is the part of focused issue “The European and Global Perspective on Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry”.

Appendix i

Appendix i

Questionnaire

  1. 1.

    How many qualified (board-certified) general psychiatrists currently practice in your country?

  2. 2.

    How many of the general psychiatrists treat child and adolescent populations?

  3. 3.

    Is there a national curriculum for postgraduate general psychiatry training? Yes/No

  4. 4.

    What is the duration of general psychiatry training?

  5. 5.

    Is there any CAP exposure during general psychiatry training? Yes/No; if yes, please answer question 5(a).

    1. a.

      What is the duration of CAP exposure during general psychiatry training?

  6. 6.

    Is child and adolescent psychiatry recognized as a separate specialty (subspecialty)? Yes/No

  7. 7.

    Is there a specialized postgraduate training program in CAP? If YES, please answer 7a-7i. If NO, please skip ahead to question 8.

    1. a.

      Is the completion of general psychiatry training required before entering CAP training? Yes/No

    2. b.

      Is an in-patient child and adolescent psychiatry unit rotation available for trainees? Yes/No

    3. c.

      Is a child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient rotation available for trainees? Yes/No

    4. d.

      Is a consultation-Liaison (psychosomatic medicine) rotation available for CAP trainees? Yes/No

    5. e.

      Is a pediatric neurology rotation available for CAP trainees? Yes/No

    6. f.

      Is a general pediatric rotation available for CAP trainees? Yes/No

    7. g.

      Is a school consultation rotation available for CAP trainees? Yes/No

    8. h.

      Is a forensic training rotation available for CAP trainees? Yes/No

    9. i.

      Are there exit exams in CAP training? Yes/No

  8. 8.

    Is there a national curriculum for postgraduate CAP training? Yes/No

  9. 9.

    Are overseas CAP electives available for CAP trainees? Yes/No

    1. a.

      If YES to Question 9, in which countries are these electives available?

  10. 10.

    Is there a need for more child and adolescent psychiatrists in your country? Yes/No

    1. a.

      If you answered YES to question 10, what are the estimated numbers of required child and adolescent psychiatrists in your country?

  11. 11.

    Is there a need for more allied professionals, other than child and adolescent psychiatrists? Yes/No

    1. a.

      If YES to question 11, what is the estimated number of required allied professionals, other than child and adolescent psychiatrists?

  12. 12.

    Is there a board certification system for child and adolescent psychiatrists?

  13. 13.

    How many qualified (board-certified) child and adolescent psychiatrists practice in your country?

  14. 14.

    How many CAP departments affiliated with universities operate in your country?

  15. 15.

    Is there a CAP society? Yes/No

  16. 16.

    Is there a national CAP journal? Yes/No

  17. 17.

    Is there a national child and adolescent mental health policy? Yes/No

  18. 18.

    If CAP is an independent medical specialty, when did this begin?

  19. 19.

    If a Specialist Society exists, when did this begin?

  20. 20.

    How long is CAP training in total?

    1. a.

      Of this CAP training time, what is the duration spent in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry?

    2. b.

      How much time does a CAP trainee spend in total in other specialties (general psychiatry, child neurology, paediatrics, etc.)?

  21. 21.

    Are you familiar with UEMS-CAP requirements regarding CAP training? Yes/No

    1. a.

      If YES to question 21, is the training in your country in accordance with UEMS-CAP requirements? Yes/No

  22. 22.

    Is there systematic integration of psychotherapy training during CAP training? Yes/No

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gregoric Kumperscak, H., Clausen, C., Anagnostopoulos, D. et al. Child and adolescent psychiatry training and mental health care in Southeast Europe. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 29, 29–39 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-019-01362-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Child
  • Adolescent
  • Psychiatry
  • Training
  • European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS)