Psychotic symptoms have been found to be relatively common among adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and to be a marker of BPD severity, but are not recognised in daily clinical practice in these patients. This study is the first to examine the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in 15–18-year olds with BPD features. It was hypothesised that adolescents with full-threshold BPD would have significantly more psychotic symptoms than adolescents with sub-threshold BPD features, and that both these groups would have significantly more psychotic symptoms than adolescents with no BPD features. A total of 171 psychiatric outpatients, aged 15–18 years, were assessed using a structured interview for DSM-IV personality disorder and categorised into three groups: no BPD features (n = 48), sub-threshold BPD features (n = 80), and full-threshold BPD (n = 43). The groups were compared on measures of psychopathology and functioning (e.g. Youth Self Report, Symptom Check List-90-R, SOFAS). Adolescents with full-threshold BPD reported more psychotic symptoms than the sub-threshold BPD group (p < .001), and both these groups reported more psychotic symptoms than those with no BPD features (p < .001). Adolescents with full-threshold BPD reported more confusion (p < .01), paranoia (p < .001), visual hallucinations (p < .001) and strange thoughts (p < .01), than the other two groups. Psychotic symptoms predicted group membership, determined by BPD severity, after adjusting for other psychopathology and functional impairment (p < .01). Assessment of unusual perceptual experiences, paranoia or odd thoughts is highly clinically relevant in adolescents with BPD features, as these symptoms are associated with a more severe clinical presentation of BPD.
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Dr. Marialuisa Cavelti is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, and the Gottfried and Julia Bangerter-Rhyner-Foundation.
Funding was received for Dr Marialuisa Cavelti as stated in the acknowledgements.
Conflict of interest
All Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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Thompson, K.N., Cavelti, M. & Chanen, A.M. Psychotic symptoms in adolescents with borderline personality disorder features. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 28, 985–992 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-018-1257-2
- Borderline personality disorder