Advertisement

European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 28, Issue 8, pp 1025–1036 | Cite as

Treatment of child externalizing behavior problems: a comprehensive review and meta–meta-analysis on effects of parent-based interventions on parental characteristics

  • Linda WeberEmail author
  • Inge Kamp-Becker
  • Hanna Christiansen
  • Tanja Mingebach
Review

Abstract

This is the first meta–meta-analysis examining the effects of parent-based interventions for children with externalizing behavior problems on parental characteristics (parenting, parental perceptions, parental mental health, parental relationship quality). Parent training interventions are recognized as evidence-based interventions for the treatment of externalizing behavior problems, although meta-analytic effects are heterogeneous. The objective of the present study was to comprehensively combine meta-analytic results on parent training interventions to arrive at valid effect predictions. Electronic databases were searched (PsycINFO, Medline, PubMed). In total, 11 meta-analyses were included that mainly comprised parents of children under the age of 13 years. Analyses were based on random effects models. Effect estimates were transformed to standardized mean differences (SMD) and corrected for primary study overlap. Results revealed a significant moderate overall effect for parenting (SMD 0.53) as well as for parents’ report of parenting (SMD 0.60) and parental perceptions (SMD 0.52). Effects remained stable to follow-up. Results for observational data, parental mental health and parental relationship quality were small and only partially significant. Considerable heterogeneity within results was revealed. Overall, parent training interventions proved to be effective in improving parental characteristics for parents of children with externalizing behavior problems. Effectiveness was stronger regarding characteristics explicitly targeted by interventions. The findings should encourage health-care providers to apply evidence-based parent training interventions.

Keywords

Meta–meta-analysis Parent training effectiveness Externalizing behavior problems Parents 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

787_2018_1175_MOESM1_ESM.docx (319 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 318 kb)
787_2018_1175_MOESM2_ESM.doc (78 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 78 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Polanczyk GV, Salum GA, Sugaya LS, Caye A, Rohde LA (2015) Annual research review: a meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 56(3):345–365.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12381 Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Steiner H, Remsing L, Work Group on Quality Issues (2007) Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46(1):126–141.  https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2010.27122 Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pinto RQ, Soares I, Carvalho-Correia E, Mesquita AR (2015) Gene-environment interactions in psychopathology throughout early childhood: a systematic review. Psychiatr Genet 25(6):223–233.  https://doi.org/10.1097/YPG.0000000000000106 Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Duncombe ME, Havighurst SS, Holland KA, Frankling EJ (2012) The contribution of parenting practices and parent emotion factors in children at risk for disruptive behavior disorders. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 43(5):715–733.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-012-0290-5 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mence M, Hawes DJ, Wedgwood L, Morgan S, Barnett B, Kohlhoff J, Hunt C (2014) Emotional flooding and hostile discipline in the families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems. J Fam Psychol 28(1):12–21.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035352 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wakschlag LS, Keenan K (2001) Clinical significance and correlates of disruptive behavior in environmentally at-risk preschoolers. J Clin Child Psychol 30(2):262–275.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3002_13 Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chronis AM, Lahey BB, Pelham WE Jr, Williams SH, Baumann BL, Kipp H, Jones HA, Rathouz PJ (2007) Maternal depression and early positive parenting predict future conduct problems in young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Dev Psychol 43(1):70–82.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.70 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jones TL, Prinz RJ (2005) Potential roles of parental self-efficacy in parent and child adjustment: a review. Clin Psychol Rev 25(3):341–363.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2004.12.004 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mouton B, Roskam I (2015) Confident mothers, easier children: a quasi-experimental manipulation of mothers’ self-efficacy. J Child Fam Stud 24(8):2485–2495.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035352 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weaver CM, Shaw DS, Dishion TJ, Wilson MN (2008) Parenting self-efficacy and problem behavior in children at high risk for early conduct problems: the mediating role of maternal depression. Infant Behav Dev 31(4):594–605.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2008.07.006 Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Linville D, Chronister K, Dishion T, Todahl J, Miller J, Shaw D, Gardner F, Wilson M (2010) A longitudinal analysis of parenting practices, couple satisfaction, and child behavior problems. J Marital Fam Ther 36(2):244–255.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.2009.00168.x Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Feng X, Shaw DS, Kovacs M, Lane T, O’Rourke FE, Alarcon JH (2008) Emotion regulation in preschoolers: the roles of behavioral inhibition, maternal affective behavior, and maternal depression. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 49(2):132–141.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01828.x Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Choe DE, Shaw DS, Brennan LM, Dishion TJ, Wilson MN (2014) Inhibitory control as a mediator of bidirectional effects between early oppositional behavior and maternal depression. Dev Psychopathol 26(4 Pt 1):1129–1147.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579414000613 Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen M, Johnston C (2012) Interparent childrearing disagreement, but not dissimilarity, predicts child problems after controlling for parenting effectiveness. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 41(2):189–201.  https://doi.org/10.14288/1.0224114 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Coln KL, Jordan SS, Mercer SH (2012) A unified model exploring parenting practices as mediators of marital conflict and children’s adjustment. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 44(3):419–429.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-012-0336-8 Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Erath SA, Bierman KL (2006) Aggressive marital conflict, maternal harsh punishment, and child aggressive-disruptive behavior: evidence for direct and mediated relations. J Fam Psychol 20(2):217–226.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.20.2.217 Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dretzke J, Frew E, Davenport C, Barlow J, Stewart-Brown S, Sandercock J, Bayliss S, Raftery J, Hyde C, Taylor R (2005) The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of parent training/education programmes for the treatment of conduct disorder, including oppositional defiant disorder, in children. Health Technol Assess.  https://doi.org/10.3310/hta9500 Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eyberg SM, Nelson MM, Boggs SR (2008) Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with disruptive behavior. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 37(1):215–237.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410701820117 Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    NICE (2013) Antisocial behaviour and conduct disorders in children and young people: recognition and management. NICE clinical guideline 158. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg158. Accessed Feb 2016
  20. 20.
    Gardner F, Montgomery P, Knerr W (2015) Transporting evidence-based parenting programs for child problem behavior (age 3–10) between countries: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1015134 Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barlow J, Smailagic N, Huband N, Roloff V, Bennett C (2014) Group-based parent training programmes for improving parental psychosocial health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002020.pub4 Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Charach A, Carson P, Fox S, Ali MU, Beckett J, Lim CG (2013) Interventions for preschool children at high risk for ADHD: a comparative effectiveness review. Pediatrics 131(5):e1584–e1604.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-0974 Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    de Graaf I, Speetjens P, Smit F, de Wolff M, Tavecchio L (2008) Effectiveness of the triple P positive parenting program on parenting: a meta-analysis. Fam Relat Interdiscip J Appl Fam Stud 57(5):553–566Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fukkink RG (2008) Video feedback in widescreen: a meta-analysis of family programs. Clin Psychol Rev 28(6):904–916.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2008.01.003 Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Furlong M, McGilloway S, Bywater T, Hutchings J, Smith SM, Donnelly M (2013) Cochrane review: behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years (Review). Evid Based Child Health Cochrane Rev J 8(2):318–692.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ebch.1905 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lundahl B, Risser HJ, Lovejoy MC (2006) A meta-analysis of parent training: moderators and follow-up effects. Clin Psychol Rev 26(1):86–104.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2005.07.004 Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sanders MR, Kirby JN, Tellegen CL, Day JJ (2014) The triple P-positive parenting program: a systematic review and meta-analysis of a multi-level system of parenting support. Clin Psychol Rev.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2014.04.003 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Herr L, Mingebach T, Becker K, Christiansen H, Kamp-Becker I (2015) A systematic review of the effectiveness of parent-based interventions for children aged two to twelve years. Kindheit und Entwicklung 24(1):6–19.  https://doi.org/10.1026/0942-5403/a000154 Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cooper H, Koenka AC (2012) The overview of reviews: unique challenges and opportunities when research syntheses are the principal elements of new integrative scholarship. Am Psychol 67(6):446–462.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027119 Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Munder T, Brutsch O, Leonhart R, Gerger H, Barth J (2013) Researcher allegiance in psychotherapy outcome research: an overview of reviews. Clin Psychol Rev 33(4):501–511.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.02.002 Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sanders MR, Prinz RJ (2005) The Triple P system: a multi-level, evidence-based, population approach to the prevention and treatment of behavioral and emotional problems in children. Reg Rep 31:42–46Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Higgins JPT, Green S (eds) (2011) Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions version 5.1.0 [updated march 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JPA, Clarke M, Devereaux PJ, Kleijnen J, Moher D (2009) The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med 6(7):e1000100.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100 Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    IBM Corp. (2013) IBM SPSS statistics for windows. (Version 22.0). IBM Corp, ArmonkGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hallgren KA (2012) Computing inter-rater reliability for observational data: an overview and tutorial. Tutor Quant Methods Psychol 8(1):23–34Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Borenstein M, Hedges L, Higgins J, Rothstein H (2010) Comprehensive meta-analysis. Biostat, EnglewoodGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R Core Team (2015) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Viechtbauer W (2010) Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. J Stat Softw 36(3):1–48.  https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v036.i03 Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd edn. Laurence Erlbaum Associates, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Higgins JPT, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG (2003) Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 327(7414):557–560.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557 Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Orwin RG (1983) A fail-safe N for effect size in meta-analysis. J Educ Stat 8(2):157–159.  https://doi.org/10.3102/10769986008002157 Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zwi M, Jones H, Thorgaard C, York A, Dennis JA (2011) Parent training interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003018.pub3 Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fletcher R, Freeman E, Matthey S (2011) The impact of behavioural parent training on fathers’ parenting: a meta-analysis of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Father J Theory Res Pract Men Fathers 9(3):291–312.  https://doi.org/10.3149/fth.0903.291 Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nowak C, Heinrichs N (2008) A comprehensive meta-analysis of Triple P-Positive Parenting Program using hierarchical linear modeling: effectiveness and moderating variables. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 11(3):114–144.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-008-0033-0 Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tellegen CL, Sanders MR (2013) Stepping stones triple P-positive parenting program for children with disability: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Res Dev Disabil 34(5):1556–1571.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2013.01.022 Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Thomas R, Zimmer-Gembeck MJ (2007) Behavioral outcomes of parent-child interaction therapy and triple P-positive parenting program: a review and meta-analysis. J Abnorm Child Psychol 35(3):475–495.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9104-9 Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Serketich WJ, Dumas JE (1996) The effectiveness of behavioral parent training to modify antisocial behavior in children: a meta-analysis. Behav Ther 27(2):171–186.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(96)80013-X Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Button KS, Ioannidis JPA, Mokrysz C, Nosek BA, Flint J, Robinson ESJ, Munafo MR (2013) Power failure: why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci 14(5):365–376.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3475 Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wilson P, Rush R, Hussey S, Puckering C, Sim F, Allely CS, Doku P, McConnachie A, Gillberg C (2012) How evidence-based is an ‘evidence-based parenting program’? A PRISMA systematic review and meta-analysis of Triple P. BMC Med 10:130.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-10-130 Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lundahl BW, Tollefson D, Risser H, Lovejoy MC (2008) A meta-analysis of father involvement in parent training. Res Soc Work Pract 18(2):97–106.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731507309828 Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gardner F (2000) Methodological issues in the direct observation of parent-child interaction: do observational findings reflect the natural behavior of participants? Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 3(3):185–198.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009503409699 Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kane GA, Wood VA, Barlow J (2007) Parenting programmes: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research. Child Care Health Dev 33(6):784–793.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2007.00750.x Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Glatz T, Buchanan CM (2015) Over-time associations among parental self-efficacy, promotive parenting practices, and adolescents’ externalizing behaviors. J Fam Psychol 29(3):427–437.  https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000076 Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fabiano GA (2007) Father participation in behavioral parent training for ADHD: review and recommendations for increasing inclusion and engagement. J Fam Psychol 21(4):683.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.21.4.683 Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Reyno SM, McGrath PJ (2006) Predictors of parent training efficacy for child externalizing behavior problems–a meta-analytic review. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 47(1):99–111.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01544.x Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Katerndahl DA, Lawler WR (1999) Variability in meta-analytic results concerning the value of cholesterol reduction in coronary heart disease: a meta–meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 149(5):429–441.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009830 Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tamim RM, Bernard RM, Borokhovski E, Abrami PC, Schmid RF (2011) What forty years of research says about the impact of technology on learning: a second-order meta-analysis and validation study. Rev Educ Res 81(1):4–28.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654310393361 Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Emmelkamp PMG, David D, Beckers T, Muris P, Cuijpers P, Lutz W, Andersson G, Araya R, Banos Rivera RM, Barkham M, Berking M, Berger T, Botella C, Carlbring P, Colom F, Essau C, Hermans D, Hofmann SG, Knappe S, Ollendick TH, Raes F, Rief W, Riper H, Van Der Oord S, Vervliet B (2014) Advancing psychotherapy and evidence-based psychological interventions. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 23(S1):58–91.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mpr.1411 Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kazak AE, Hoagwood K, Weisz JR, Hood K, Kratochwill TR, Vargas LA, Banez GA (2010) A meta-systems approach to evidence-based practice for children and adolescents. Am Psychol 65(2):85–97.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017784 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and PsychotherapyMarburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent PsychologyPhilipps University MarburgMarburgGermany

Personalised recommendations