Advertisement

European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 27, Issue 12, pp 1633–1643 | Cite as

Time trends of Finnish adolescents’ mental health and use of alcohol and cigarettes from 1998 to 2014

  • Kaisa Mishina
  • Elina Tiiri
  • Lotta Lempinen
  • Lauri Sillanmäki
  • Kim Kronström
  • Andre Sourander
Original Contribution

Abstract

This study reports time-trend changes in self-reported mental health problems, smoking, and alcohol habits among Finnish adolescents over a 16-year period using three cross-sectional studies with similar designs, methodologies, and geographical recruitment areas. There were 4508 participants with a mean age of 14.4 years (range 13–18) in 1998 (n = 1449), 2008 (n = 1560), and 2014 (n = 1499). The information they provided on their mental health was measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and they were also asked questions about their alcohol and smoking habits. The findings showed that from 1998 to 2014 females reported less hyperactivity and conduct problems and males reported fewer peer problems and better prosocial skills. The only mental health problem that showed a significant increase was emotional symptoms among females. Smoking and alcohol use consistently decreased in males and females during the 16-year period. Our findings suggest that overall adolescent’s self-reported mental health problems were either stable or falling, indicating increased well-being. The decreased smoking indicates that anti-smoking campaigns have been successfully changing teenagers’ attitudes towards smoking. The important finding is that self-reported emotional symptoms had increased in females. This may indicate an increase or earlier onset of affective disorders.

Keywords

Adolescent Alcohol Mental health Smoking Time-trend analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the Academy of Finland.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

The ethical standards from the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments were followed. The Ethical Committee at the Hospital District of Turku University Hospital (1998, 2008) and the Ethics Committee of the University of Turku (2014) approved the study design and permission was obtained from school authorities. Participation was voluntary for adolescents and their anonymity was ensured. The questionnaires were completed anonymously. Parental consent was obtained by informing them about the study and they had possibility to refuse adolescent not to participate in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Maughan B, Iervolino AC, Collishaw S (2005) Time trends in child and adolescent mental disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry 18:381–385.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.yco.0000172055.25284.f2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rutter MJ, Smith DJ (1995) Psychosocial disorders in young people: time trends and their causes. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Collishaw S (2015) Annual research review: secular trends in child and adolescent mental health. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 56:370–393.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12372 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Olfson M, Druss BG, Marcus SC (2015) Trends in mental health care among children and adolescents. N Engl J Med 373:1079.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa1413512 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Steinhausen HC (2015) Recent international trends in psychotropic medication prescriptions for children and adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 24:635–640.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-014-0631-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Saastamoinen L, Autti-Rämö I, Tuulio-Henriksson A, Sourander A (2017) Lasten ja nuorten psykoosilääkkeiden käyttö kasvussa. [Prescribing of antipsychotics for children and adolescents is increasing in Finland]. J Finn Med Assoc 72:575–579Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kronström K, Kuosmanen L, Ellilä H, Kaljonen A, Sourander A (2017) National time trend changes in psychotropic medication of child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients across Finland. Child Adolesc Mental Health.  https://doi.org/10.1111/camh.12217 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sourander A, Koskelainen M, Niemela S, Rihko M, Ristkari T, Lindroos J (2012) Changes in adolescents mental health and use of alcohol and tobacco: a 10-year time-trend study of Finnish adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 21:665–671.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-012-0303-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kinnunen JM, Pere L, Lindfors P, Ollila H, Rimpelä A (2015) The Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey 2015. Adolescent smoking, alcohol and substance use in 1977–2015. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Finland. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-00-3592-1. Accessed 4 Sept 2017
  10. 10.
    Looze M, Raaijmakers Q, Bogt TT, Bendtsen P, Farhat T, Ferreira M, Godeau E, Kuntsche E, Molcho M, Pfortner TK, Simons-Morton B, Vieno A, Vollebergh W, Pickett W (2015) Decreases in adolescent weekly alcohol use in Europe and North America: evidence from 28 countries from 2002 to 2010. Eur J Public Health 2:69–72.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckv031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Peiper NC, Ridenour TA, Hochwalt B, Coyne-Beasley T (2016) Overview on prevalence and recent trends in adolescent substance use and abuse. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 25:349–365.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2016.03.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Torikka A, Kaltiala-Heino R, Luukkaala T, Rimpelä A (2017) Trends in alcohol use among adolescents from 2000 to 2011: the role of socioeconomic status and depression. Alcohol 52:95–103.  https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agw048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (2005) Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:593–602.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Statfin (2017) Statistics Finland’s PX-Web databases. http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/pxweb/en/StatFin/?rxid=c20c39a5-a79e-4c15-af0d-7f57eb7c1657. Accessed 16 Mar 2018
  15. 15.
    Koskelainen M, Sourander A, Vauras M (2001) Self-reported strengths and difficulties in a community sample of Finnish adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 10:180–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goodman R (1997) The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 38:581–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goodman R, Scott S (1999) Comparing the strengths and difficulties questionnaire and the child behavior checklist: is small beautiful? J Abnorm Child Psychol 27:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Smedje H, Broman JE, Hetta J, von Knorring AL (1999) Psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire”. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 8:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sourander A, Koskelainen M, Helenius H (1999) Mood, latitude, and seasonality among adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:1271–1276.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199910000-00016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Koskelainen M, Sourander A, Kaljonen A (2000) The strengths and difficulties questionnaire among Finnish school-aged children and adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 9:277–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Obel C, Heiervang E, Rodriguez A, Heyerdahl S, Smedje H, Sourander A, Guethmundsson OO, Clench-Aas J, Christensen E, Heian F, Mathiesen KS, Magnusson P, Njarethvik U, Koskelainen M, Ronning JA, Stormark KM, Olsen J (2004) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in the Nordic countries. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13(Suppl 2):II32–II39.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-004-2006-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ronning JA, Handegaard BH, Sourander A, Morch WT (2004) The Strengths and Difficulties Self-Report Questionnaire as a screening instrument in Norwegian community samples. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13:73–82.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-004-0356-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Santalahti P, Sourander A, Aromaa M, Helenius H, Ikäheimo K, Piha J (2008) Victimization and bullying among 8-year-old Finnish children: a 10-year comparison of rates. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 17:463–472.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-008-0688-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Luntamo T, Sourander A, Rihko M, Aromaa M, Helenius H, Koskelainen M, McGrath PJ (2012) Psychosocial determinants of headache, abdominal pain, and sleep problems in a community sample of Finnish adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 21:301–313.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-012-0261-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    SAS Institute Inc (2012) SAS Institute Inc, CaryGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Duinhof EL, Stevens GW, van Dorsselaer S, Monshouwer K, Vollebergh WA (2015) Ten-year trends in adolescents’ self-reported emotional and behavioral problems in the Netherlands. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 24(9):1119–1128.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-014-0664-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    von Soest T, Wichstrom L (2014) Secular trends in depressive symptoms among Norwegian adolescents from 1992 to 2010. J Abnorm Child Psychol 42:403–415.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9785-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sourander A, Lempinen L, Brunstein Klomek A (2016) Changes in mental health, bullying behavior, and service use among eight-year-old children over 24 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 55:717–725.e2.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2016.05.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Clark T, Fleming T, Bullen P, Crengle S, Denny S, Dyson B, Peiris-John R, Robinson E, Rossen F, Sheridan J, Teevale T, Utter J, Lewycka S (2013) Health and well-being of secondary school students in New Zealand: trends between 2001, 2007 and 2012. J Paediatr Child Health 49:925–934.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.12427 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ng M, Freeman MK, Fleming TD, Robinson M, Dwyer-Lindgren L, Thomson B, Wollum A, Sanman E, Wulf S, Lopez AD, Murray CJ, Gakidou E (2014) Smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in 187 countries, 1980–2012. JAMA 311:183–192.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.284692 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    ESPAD Group (2016) Results from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. ESPAD Report 2015. Publications Office of the European Union. http://espad.org/sites/espad.org/files/TD0116475ENN.pdf. Accessed 4 Sept 2017
  32. 32.
    Ollila H, Ruokolainen O (2016) Tupakkatuotteiden yhteiskäyttö yläkouluissa ja toisen asteen oppilaitoksissa 2000–2015. National Institute for Health and Welfare. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-302-612-4. Accessed 10 Oct 2017
  33. 33.
    Raitasalo K, Huhtanen P, Miekkala M (2015) Nuorten päihteiden käyttö 1995–2015. ESPAD tutkimusten tulokset [Alcohol and drug use among adolescents in Finland 1995–2015. ESPAD survey results]. National Institute for Health and Welfare Report 19/2015. http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-302-572-1. Accessed 17 Sept 2017
  34. 34.
    Stockings E, Hall WD, Lynskey M, Morley KI, Reavley N, Strang J, Patton G, Degenhardt L (2016) Prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of substance use in young people. Lancet Psychiatry 3:280–296.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(16)00002-X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lintonen T, Karlsson T, Nevalainen J, Konu A (2013) Alcohol policy changes and trends in adolescent drinking in Finland from 1981 to 2011. Alcohol Alcohol 48:620–626.  https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agt048 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kuipers MA, Brandhof SD, Monshouwer K, Stronks K, Kunst AE (2017) Impact of laws restricting the sale of tobacco to minors on adolescent smoking and perceived obtainability of cigarettes: an intervention-control pre-post study of 19 European Union countries. Addiction 112:320–329.  https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13605 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Veeranki SP, Mamudu HM, Anderson JL, Zheng S (2014) Worldwide never-smoking youth susceptibility to smoking. J Adolesc Health 54:144–150.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.07.036 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Georgie JM, Sean H, Deborah MC, Matthew H, Rona C (2016) Peer-led interventions to prevent tobacco, alcohol and/or drug use among young people aged 11–21 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction 111:391–407.  https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Carson-Chahhoud KV, Ameer F, Sayehmiri K, Hnin K, van Agteren JEM, Sayehmiri F, Brinn MP, Esterman AJ, Chang AB, Smith BJ (2017) Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 6:CD001006.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001006.pub3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stanton WR, Smith KM (2002) A critique of evaluated adolescent smoking cessation programmes. J Adolesc 25:427–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wellman RJ, Dugas EN, Dutczak H, O’Loughlin EK, Datta GD, Lauzon B, O’Loughlin J (2016) Predictors of the onset of cigarette smoking: a systematic review of longitudinal population-based studies in youth. Am J Prev Med 51:767–778.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.04.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    National Institute of Health and Welfare. School health promotion study (2017) School Health Promotion study. https://thl.fi/fi/web/thlfi-en/research-and-expertwork/population-studies/school-health-promotion-study. Accessed 23 Mar 2018
  43. 43.
    Collishaw S, Maughan B, Goodman R, Pickles A (2004) Time trends in adolescent mental health. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 45:1350–1362.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00842.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sweeting H, Young R, West P (2009) GHQ increases among Scottish 15 year olds 1987–2006. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 44:579–586.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-008-0462-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Collishaw S, Maughan B, Natarajan L, Pickles A (2010) Trends in adolescent emotional problems in England: a comparison of two national cohorts twenty years apart. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 51:885–894.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02252.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tick NT, van der Ende J, Verhulst FC (2007) Twenty-year trends in emotional and behavioral problems in Dutch children in a changing society. Acta Psychiatr Scand 116:473–482.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2007.01068.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bor W, Dean AJ, Najman J, Hayatbakhsh R (2014) Are child and adolescent mental health problems increasing in the 21st century.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867414533834 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sourander A, Niemelä S, Santalahti P, Helenius H, Piha J (2008) Changes in psychiatric problems and service use among 8-year-old children: a 16-year population-based time-trend study. JAACAP 47:317–327.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e318160b98f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kovacs M (1981) Rating scales to assess depression in school-aged children. Acta Paedopsychiatr 46:305–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Costello EJ, Erkanli A, Angold A (2006) Is there an epidemic of child or adolescent depression? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 47:1263–1271.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01682.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    West P, Sweeting H (2003) Fifteen, female and stressed: changing patterns of psychological distress over time. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 44:399–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sweeting H, West P, Young R, Der G (2010) Can we explain increases in young people’s psychological distress over time? Soc Sci Med 71:1819–1830.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.08.012 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Statfin (2017) Population. Statistics Finland’s PX-Web databases http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/pxweb/en/StatFin/StatFin__vrm__perh/?rxid=35861a5f-6a16-420a-a7d3-177654dc8e3b. Accessed 4 Dec 2017
  54. 54.
    Wood JJ, Lynne-Landsman SD, Langer DA, Wood PA, Clark SL, Eddy JM, Ialongo N (2012) School attendance problems and youth psychopathology: structural cross-lagged regression models in three longitudinal data sets. Child Dev 83:351–366.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01677.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Holtes M, Bannink R, Joosten-van Zwanenburg E, van As E, Raat H, Broeren S (2015) Associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with alcohol consumption among adolescents. J Sch Health 85:852–860.  https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12341 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kearney CA (2008) School absenteeism and school refusal behavior in youth: a contemporary review. Clin Psychol Rev 28:451–471.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2007.07.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mounteney J, Haugland S, Skutle A (2010) Truancy, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in secondary school pupils in Norway. Health Educ Res 25:945–954.  https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyq044 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Child PsychiatryUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Turku University HospitalTurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations