European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 341–350 | Cite as

Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Tiantian Wang
  • Ling Shan
  • Lin Du
  • Junyan Feng
  • Zhida Xu
  • Wouter G. Staal
  • Feiyong JiaEmail author


Vitamin D may play an important role in the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Vitamin D is regarded as a neuroactive steroid affecting brain development and function. It plays an essential role in myelination, which is important for connectivity in the brain. Studies have shown that decreased vitamin D levels in patients, decreased maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy, and decreased exposure to solar UVB might increase the risk for ASD. In addition, autism symptoms and global functioning may improve after vitamin D supplementation. Here, we sought to aggregate information from previous publications on vitamin D levels and ASD, in order to achieve a higher statistical power and thereby to determine the validity of vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for ASD. For this meta-analysis, 11 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, accounting for a total of 870 ASD patients and 782 healthy controls. Levels of serum 25(OH) D in participants with ASD were significantly lower than controls, suggesting that lower vitamin D level might be a risk factor for ASD.


Autism spectrum disorders Vitamin D Review Meta-analysis 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tiantian Wang
    • 1
  • Ling Shan
    • 1
  • Lin Du
    • 1
  • Junyan Feng
    • 1
  • Zhida Xu
    • 2
  • Wouter G. Staal
    • 3
  • Feiyong Jia
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Neurology and NeurorehabilitationThe First Hospital of Jilin UniversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry and Donders Centre for NeuroscienceRadboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre KarakterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Institute of Pediatrics of First Hospital of Jilin University ChangchunChangchunChina
  5. 5.Neurological Research Center of First Hospital of Jilin UniversityChangchunChina

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