Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Development of an internet-based support and coaching model for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study

  • Original Contribution
  • Published:
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The aims of this paper were to develop an internet-based support and coaching model for young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to validate the model. A user-centred design was applied to develop a model for internet-based support and coaching, where individuals received 8-week support via internet (chat). The model was validated by 10 individuals, 15–26 years of age, with ASD and/or ADHD. Self-report questionnaires [Sense of Coherence (SOC), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale] were distributed before and after intervention. A structured interview regarding the quality of the model, the Patient perspective of Care and Rehabilitation process (POCR), was used after the intervention. The validation showed significant improvement of SOC, self-esteem and subjective Quality of Life at follow-up and the majority perceived high fulfilment/importance on the POCR. In conclusion, The model can be an important complement to other interventions for young people with ASD and/or ADHD.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Hill JC, Schoener EP (1996) Age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 153(9):1143–1146

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Mannuzza S, Klein RG, Moulton JL 3rd (2003) Persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood: what have we learned from the prospective follow-up studies? J Atten Disord 7(2):93–100

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Billstedt E, Gillberg IC, Gillberg C (2005) Autism after adolescence: population-based 13- to 22-year follow-up study of 120 individuals with autism diagnosed in childhood. J Autism Dev Disord 35(3):351–360

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Cederlund M, Hagberg B, Billstedt E, Gillberg IC, Gillberg C (2008) Asperger syndrome and autism: a comparative longitudinal follow-up study more than 5 years after original diagnosis. J Autism Dev Disord 38(1):72–85

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Stahlberg O, Soderstrom H, Rastam M, Gillberg C (2004) Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorders in adults with childhood onset AD/HD and/or autism spectrum disorders. J Neural Transm 111(7):891–902

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Murray DW, Arnold LE, Swanson J, Wells K, Burns K, Jensen P et al (2008) A clinical review of outcomes of the multimodal treatment study of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (MTA). Curr Psychiatry Rep 10(5):424–431

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Maidment ID (2003) Efficacy of stimulants in adult ADHD. Ann Pharmacother 37(12):1884–1890

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Levine M (2005) Ready or not, here life comes. Simon & Schuster, New York

    Google Scholar 

  9. Sleeper-Triplett J (2008) The effectiveness of coaching for children and teens with AD/HD. Pediatr Nurs 34(5):433–435

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Mesibov GB (1984) Social skills training with verbal autistic adolescents and adults: a program model. J Autism Dev Disord 14(4):395–404

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. McLaren P (2003) Telemedicine and telecare: what can it offer mental health services? Adv Psychiatr Treat 9:54–61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Andersson G, Cuijpers P (2008) Pros and cons of online cognitive-behavioural therapy. Br J Psychiatry 193(4):270–271

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Brownlow C, O’Dell L (2006) Constructing an autistic identity: AS voices online. Ment Retard 44(5):315–321

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Lorence D (2007) Examining online chat within a domain of uncertainty: the case of Asperger’s syndrome. Health Info Libr J 24(2):128–136

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Akram G, Thomson AH, Boyter AC, Morton MJ (2008) Characterisation and evaluation of UK websites on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Dis Child 93(8):695–700

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Cunningham K (2006) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Consum Health Internet 10(1):53–71

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Nadig A, Lee I, Singh L, Bosshart K, Ozonoff S (2010) How does the topic of conversation affect verbal exchange and eye gaze? A comparison between typical development and high-functioning autism. Neuropsychologia 48(9):2730–2739

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Jordan CJ (2010) Evolution of autism support and understanding via the World Wide Web. Intellect Dev Disabil 48(3):220–227

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. APA (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn (DSM-IV). American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  20. First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW (1997) Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-patient edition (SCID-I/P, Version 2.0, 4/97 revision). Biometrics Research Department, New York

  21. First MB, Gibbon M, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW, Benjamin L (1997) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II). American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  22. Montgomery SA, Asberg M (1979) A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. Br J Psychiatry 134:382–389

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Priebe S, Huxley P, Knight S, Evans S (1999) Application and results of the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). Int J Soc Psychiatry 45(1):7–12

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Bjorkman T, Svensson B (2005) Quality of life in people with severe mental illness. Reliability and validity of the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). Nord J Psychiatry 59(4):302–306

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Zigmond AS, Snaith RP (1983) The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 67(6):361–370

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Antonovsky A (1979) Health, stress and coping. Jossey-Bass, San Fransisco

    Google Scholar 

  27. Antonovsky A (1987) Unrevealing the mystery of health: how people manage stress and stay well. Jossey-Bass, San Fransisco

    Google Scholar 

  28. Rosenberg M (1965) Society and adolescent self-image. Princeton University Press, Princeton

    Google Scholar 

  29. Rosenberg M (1989) Society and the adolescent self-image, revised edition. Wesleyan University Press, Middletown

    Google Scholar 

  30. Krevers B, Öberg B (2002) Development of the Patient perspective On Care and Rehabilitation process’ instrument (POCR). Aging Clin Exp Res 14(5):402–411

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Krevers B, Narvanen AL, Oberg B (2002) Patient evaluation of the care and rehabilitation process in geriatric hospital care. Disabil Rehabil 24(9):482–491

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Odman P, Krevers B, Oberg B (2007) Parents’ perceptions of the quality of two intensive training programmes for children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 49(2):93–100

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Gould J, Lewis C (1985) Designing for usability: key principles and what designers think. Commun ACM 28(3):300–311

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Hechtman L, Weiss G, Perlman T (1980) Hyperactives as young adults: self-esteem and social skills. Can J Psychiatry 25(6):478–483

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Shaw-Zirt B, Popali-Lehane L, Chaplin W, Bergman A (2005) Adjustment, social skills, and self-esteem in college students with symptoms of ADHD. J Atten Disord 8(3):109–120

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Eriksson M, Lindstrom B (2006) Antonovsky’s sense of coherence scale and the relation with health: a systematic review. J Epidemiol Community Health 60(5):376–381

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Edbom T, Malmberg K, Lichtenstein P, Granlund M, Larsson JO (2010) High sense of coherence in adolescence is a protective factor in the longitudinal development of ADHD symptoms. Scand J Caring Sci 24(3):541–547

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Skarsater I, Langius A, Agren H, Haggstrom L, Dencker K (2005) Sense of coherence and social support in relation to recovery in first-episode patients with major depression: a one-year prospective study. Int J Ment Health Nurs 14(4):258–264

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Chao CY, Gau SS, Mao WC, Shyu JF, Chen YC, Yeh CB (2008) Relationship of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder symptoms, depressive/anxiety symptoms, and life quality in young men. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 62(4):421–426

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Kanne SM, Christ SE, Reiersen AM (2009) Psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial difficulties in young adults with autistic traits. J Autism Dev Disord 39(6):827–833

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Danckaerts M, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, Dopfner M, Hollis C et al (2010) The quality of life of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 19(2):83–105

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Topolski TD, Edwards TC, Patrick DL, Varley P, Way ME, Buesching DP (2004) Quality of life of adolescent males with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Atten Disord 7(3):163–173

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. McGough JJ, Smalley SL, McCracken JT, Yang M, Del’Homme M, Lynn DE et al (2005) Psychiatric comorbidity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: findings from multiplex families. Am J Psychiatry 162(9):1621–1627

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Biederman J, Spencer TJ, Wilens TE, Weisler RH, Read SC, Tulloch SJ (2005) Long-term safety and effectiveness of mixed amphetamine salts extended release in adults with ADHD. CNS Spectr 10(12 Suppl 20):16–25

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Adler LA, Spencer T, Brown TE, Holdnack J, Saylor K, Schuh K et al (2009) Once-daily atomoxetine for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 6-month, double-blind trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol 29(1):44–50

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Jarbrink K, McCrone P, Fombonne E, Zanden H, Knapp M (2007) Cost-impact of young adults with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder. Res Dev Disabil 28(1):94–104

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Schlander M (2010) The pharmaceutical economics of child psychiatric drug treatment. Curr Pharm Des 16(22):2443–2461

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Jensen PS, Garcia JA, Glied S, Crowe M, Foster M, Schlander M et al (2005) Cost-effectiveness of ADHD treatments: findings from the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD. Am J Psychiatry 162(9):1628–1636

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Torgersen T, Gjervan B, Rasmussen K (2008) Treatment of adult ADHD: is current knowledge useful to clinicians? Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 4(1):177–186

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the young adults who participated. We also like to thank the coaches Lena Niklasson, Louise Hakenäs-Plate, Eva Billstedt and Marie Lindström, and the coordinator Helena Osmar-Swerkersdotter. We are grateful to Mikael Elf for conducting the POCR interviews. This work was supported by The Vårdal Institute, the Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, government grants under the ALF agreement, the Wilhelm and Martina Lundgren foundation and Vinnvård. Parts of the manuscript have been presented at The IX International Congress Autism Europe, Catania 2010.

The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Protocol ID: 16611).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elisabet Wentz.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wentz, E., Nydén, A. & Krevers, B. Development of an internet-based support and coaching model for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 21, 611–622 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-012-0297-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-012-0297-2

Keywords

Navigation