European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 16, Issue 8, pp 495–504 | Cite as

Epidemiology of eating disorders

A two year follow up in an early adolescent school population
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION

Abstract

Objective

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in a representative school population of early adolescents of both sexes and to evaluate persistence and incidence after two years.

Method

An initial sample of 1336 (mean age = 11.37) was assessed in a two-phase design. The Children Eating Attitudes Test was used to select 258 participants (T1) from the initial sample who were followed-up two years later (T2; n = 200). Diagnoses of ED were obtained using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents- Children and Parent Version (DICA-C and DICA-P) at T1, and Adolescent Version (DICA-A) at T2. At T2, participants were also assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test, the Bulimic Investigatory Test, and the Eating Disorders Inventory. The Body mass index (BMI) was obtained for all participants.

Results

The estimated prevalence of any ED according to DICA-C (T1) and DICA-A was 3.44% and 3.81%, respectively. The most frequent diagnoses were syndromes that were not full-blown. Biannual incidence of any ED was 2.02%. Amongst those with an ED, 52.17% persisted. Females showed a higher incidence and persistence of any ED than males. Participants who had the highest BMI were those who had a persistent diagnosis of ED.

Conclusion

ED that began at early ages in less severe forms and in females often persisted with increasing severity.

Key words

eating disorders prevalence follow-up study early adolescence 

References

  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association (APA) (1994) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th edn.) APA, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beato L, Rodriguez T, Belmonte A, Martínez C (2004) Risk factors for eating disorders in adolescents. A Spanish community-based longitudinal study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13:287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bizeul C, Sadowsky N, Rigaud D (2001) The prognostic value of initial EDI scres in anorexia nervosa patients: a prospective follow-up study of 5–10 years. Eur Psychiatry 16: 232–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bruch H (1973) Eating disorders: obesity, anorexia nervosa and the person within. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Canals J, Carbajo G, Fernández-Ballart J (2001) Discriminant validity of the eating attitudes test according to American Psychiatric Association and World Health Organization criteria of eating disorders. Psychol Rep 291:1052–1056Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Canals J, Doménech E, Carbajo G, Bladé J (1997) Prevalence of DSM-III-R and ICD-10 psychiatric disorders in a Spanish population of 18-years-old. Acta Psychiatr Scand 96:287–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Castro J, Toro J, Salamero M, Guimerá E (1991) The eating attitudes test: validation of the Spanish version. Psychol Assess 7:175–190Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cervera S, Gual MP, Lasa L, et al. (1995) Protocolo de atención a pacientes con trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Clínica Universitaria de Navarra, Universidad de Navarra, EspañaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cotrufo P, Barreta P, Maj M (1998) Full-syndrome, partial-syndrome and subclinical eating disorders: an epidemiological study in female students in Southern Italy. Acta Psychiatr Scand 98:112–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cotrufo P, Gnisci A, Caputo I (2005) Brief report: psychological characteristics of less severe forms of eating disorders: an epidemiological study among 259 female adolescents. J Adolesc 28:147–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cotrufo P, Monteleone P, Castaldo E, Maj M (2004) A 4-year epidemiological study of typical and atypical eating disorders: preliminary evidence for subgroups of atypical eating disorders with different natural outcomes. Eur Eat Disord Rev 12:234–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Field AE, Austin SB, Taylor, Malspeis S, Rosner B, Rockett HR, et al. (2003) Relation between dieting and weight change among preadolescents and adolescents. Pediatrics 112:900–906Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Garner DM (1990) Eating disorders inventory-2. Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, OdessaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Garner DM (1998) EDI2 Inventario de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. TEA Ediciones, MadridGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Garner D, Garfinkel P (1979) The eating attitudes test: an index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Psycholog Med 9:273–279Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ghaderi A, Scott B (2001) Prevalence, incidence and prospective risks for eating disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 104:122–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gual P, Pérez-Gaspar M, Martínez-González MA, Lahortiga F, de Irala-Estevez J, Cervera-Enguix S (2002) Self-esteem, personality, and eating disorders: Baseline assessment if aprospective population-based cohort. Int J Eat Disord 31:371–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Halmi KA, Sunday SR, Strober M (2000) Perfectionism in anorexia nervosa: variation by clinical subtype, obsessionality, and pathological eating behavior. Am J Psychiatry 157:1799–1805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Halvarsson K, Lunner K, Westenberg J, Anteson F, Per-olow SA (2002) Longitudinal of development of dieting among 7–17-year-old Swedish girls. Int J Eat Disord 31:32–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Henderson M, Freeman PL (1987) A Self-rating Scale for Bulimia. The BITE. Br J Psychiatry 150:18–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Herzog DB, Hopkins JD, Burns CD (1993) A follow-study off 33 subdiagnostic eating disordered women. Int J Eat Disord 14:261–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hoek HW, Van Hoeken D (2003) Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders. Am J Eat Disord 34:383–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hollingshead A (1975) Four factor Index of social position, Yale University Department of Sociology Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Irena S, Ferenc T, Agnes H, Csilla C, Gyoergy P, Janos R (2001) The prevalence of eating disorders in a Hungarian representative sample of young women. Psychiat Hung 16:374–383Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kjelsas E, Blornstrom C, Gotestam KG (2004) Prevalence of eating disorders in female and male adolescents (14–15 years). Eat Behav 5:13–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kugu N, Aikuz G, Dogan O, Ersan E, Izgic F (2006) The prevalence of eating disorders among university students and the relationship with some individual characteristics. The Aust N Z J Psychiatry 40:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lahortiga F, de Irala J, Cano A, Gual P, Martínez MA, Cervera S (2005) Incidence of eating disorders in Navarra (Spain). Eur Psychiatry 20:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ledoux S, Choquet M, Manfredi R (1993) Associated factors for self-reported binge eating among male and female adolescents. J Adolesc 16:75–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maloney MJ, Mcguire JB, Daniels SR (1988) Reliability testing of a children’s version of the eating attitude test. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 27:541–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maloney MJ, Mcguire JB, Daniels SR, Specker B (1989) Dieting behavior and eating attitudes in children. Pediatrics 84:482–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mcknight Investigators (2003) Risk factors for the onset of eating disorders in adolescent girls: results of the McKnight longitudinal risk factor study. Am J Psychiatry 160:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mc vey G, Tweed S, Blackmore E (2004) Dieting among preadolescent and young adolescent females. CMAJ 170:1559–1561Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Miotto P, De Coppi M, Frezza M, Preti A (2003) The spectrum of eating disorders: prevalence in an area of Northeast Italy. Psychiatry Res 119:145–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Morandé G, Celada J, Casas JJ (1999) Prevalence of eating disorders in a Spanish school-age population. J Adolesc Health 24:212–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nobakht M, Dezhkman M (2000) An epidemiological study of eating disorders in Iran. Int J Eat Disord 28:265–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pangsberg AK, Wang AR (1994) Epidemiology of anorexia nervsa and bulimia nervosa in Bornholm County, Denmark, 1970–1989. Acta Psychiatr Scand 90:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Patton GC, Selzer R, Coffey C, Carlin JB, Wolfe R (1999) Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population-based cohort study over 3 years. Bri Med J 318:765–768Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pérez-Gaspar M, Gual P, de Irala-estévez J, Martínez-González MA, Lahortiga F, Cervera S (2000) Prevalence de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en las adolescentes navarras. Med Clin (Barc) 114:481–486Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pérez S (2004) Estado nutricional y psicosocial en adolescents con alteración de la conducta alimentaria. Doctoral dissertation. Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rodriguez T, Beato L, Belmonte A (2005) New contributions to the prevalence of eating disorders in Spanish adolescents: detection of false negatives. Eur Psychiatry 20:173–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sancho C, Asorey O, Arija A, Canals J (2005) Psychometric characteristics of the children´s eating attitudes test in a Spanish sample. Eur Eat Disord Rev 13:338–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Selzer R, Hamill C, Bowes G, Patton G (1996) The branched eating disorders test: validity in a nonclinical population. Int J Eat Disord 20:57–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stice E, Presnell K, Sprangler D (2002) Risk factors for body for binge eating onset: a prospective investigation. Health Psychol 21:131–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Striegel- Moore RH, Schreiber GB, LO A, Crawford P, Obarzanek E, Rodin J (2000) Eating disorder symptoms in a cohort of 11–16-year-old black and white girls: the NLBH growth and health study. Int J Eat Disord 27:49–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Striegel-Moore RH, Wilfley D, Pike K, Dohm F, Fairburn C (2000) Recurrent binge eating in black American women. Arch Fam Med 9:83–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tosselli AL, Villani S, Ferro AM, Verri A, Cucurullo L, Marinoni A (2005) Eating disorders and their correlates in high school adolescents of Northern Italy. Epidem Psichiatria Soc 14:91–99Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Vega AT, Rasillo MA, Lozano JE, Rodriguez G, Martin MF (2005) Eating disorders. Prevalence and risk profile among secondary school students. Soc Psychiatry Epidem 40:980–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wade TD, Bergin JL, Tiggemann M, Bulik CM, Fairburn CG (2006) Prevalence and long-term course of lifetime eating disorders in an adult Australian twin cohort. Austr N Z J Psychiatry 40:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Preventive Medicine and Public HealthRovira i Virgili UniversityTarragonaSpain
  2. 2.Dept. of PsychologyRovira i Virgili UniversityTarragonaSpain

Personalised recommendations