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Post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters in Turkish child and adolescent trauma survivors


This study identified post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters in Turkish children and adolescents who experienced the 1999 Marmara Earthquake, which was classified as one of the world’s six deadliest earthquakes in the 20th century. Two hundred ninety three children and adolescents (152 females and 141 males between the ages of 8 and 15) living in Izmit, the epicenter of the earthquake, participated in this study. The Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index for Children (CPTSD-RI) was administered to assess PTSD symptoms. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), using data from the CPTSD-RI, was conducted to determine whether the DSM-IV-TR symptom structure of PTSD was valid in Turkish children and adolescents. The CFA model supported the three-symptom cluster model. Limitations and implications for future research studies are included in the discussion.

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Correspondence to Aydın Bal.

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Authors’ note: We are indebt to Dr. Robert B. Rutherford, Jr. and Dr. Steven R. Forness for their invaluable feedback in the preparation of this manuscript. However, we remain solely responsible for the paper’s shortcomings.

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Bal, A., Jensen, B. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters in Turkish child and adolescent trauma survivors. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 16, 449–457 (2007).

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  • post-traumatic stress disorder
  • PTSD symptom structure
  • children
  • Turkey
  • earthquake