European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 15, Supplement 1, pp i15–i24 | Cite as

Influence of gender on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Europe – ADORE

  • Torunn Stene NøvikEmail author
  • Amaia Hervas
  • Stephen J. Ralston**
  • Søren Dalsgaard
  • Rob Rodrigues Pereira
  • Maria J. Lorenzo
  • ADORE Study Group*



Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in girls in Europe is poorly understood; it is not known whether they exhibit similar symptom patterns or co-existing problems and receive the same type of treatment as boys.


To examine gender differences for referral patterns, social demographic factors, ADHD core symptomatology, co-existing health problems, psychosocial functioning and treatment.


Baseline data from the ADHD Observational Research in Europe (ADORE) study, a 24-month, naturalistic, longitudinal observational study in 10 European countries of children (aged 6–18 years) with hyperactive/inattentive/impulsive symptoms but no previous diagnosis of ADHD, were analysed by gender.


Data from 1,478 children were analysed: 231 girls (15.7 %) and 1,222 boys (84.3 %) (gender data missing for 25 patients). Gender ratios (girl:boy) varied by country, ranging from 1:3 to 1:16. Comparisons showed few gender effects in core ADHD symptomatology and clinical correlates of ADHD. Compared with boys, girls had significantly more parent-rated emotional symptoms and prosocial behaviour and were more likely to be the victim of bullying and less likely to be the bully. Girls and boys had similar levels of co-existing psychiatric and physical health problems, and received the same type of treatment.


Fewer girls than boys are referred for ADHD treatment, but they have a similar pattern of impairment and receive similar treatment.

Key words

ADHD girls gender differences Europe 



Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder Observational Research in Europe


ADHD Rating Scale-IV


Conduct Disorder


Child Health and Illness Profile – Child Edition


Children's Global Assessment Scale


Clinical Global Impression – Severity scale


Health-Related Quality of Life


Multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD


Oppositional Defiant Disorder


Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire


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Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Torunn Stene Nøvik
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amaia Hervas
    • 2
  • Stephen J. Ralston**
  • Søren Dalsgaard
    • 3
  • Rob Rodrigues Pereira
    • 4
  • Maria J. Lorenzo
    • 5
  • ADORE Study Group*
  1. 1.Dept. of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryBuskerud HospitalDrammenNorway
  2. 2.Dept. of Child and Adolescent Mental HealthMutua de Terrassa HospitalBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Dept. of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryAarhus University HospitalAarhusDenmark
  4. 4.Medical Centre Rijnmond South, Dept. of PaediatricsRotterdamThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Research CentreWindlesham, SurreyUK

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