Influence of gender on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Europe – ADORE
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in girls in Europe is poorly understood; it is not known whether they exhibit similar symptom patterns or co-existing problems and receive the same type of treatment as boys.
To examine gender differences for referral patterns, social demographic factors, ADHD core symptomatology, co-existing health problems, psychosocial functioning and treatment.
Baseline data from the ADHD Observational Research in Europe (ADORE) study, a 24-month, naturalistic, longitudinal observational study in 10 European countries of children (aged 6–18 years) with hyperactive/inattentive/impulsive symptoms but no previous diagnosis of ADHD, were analysed by gender.
Data from 1,478 children were analysed: 231 girls (15.7 %) and 1,222 boys (84.3 %) (gender data missing for 25 patients). Gender ratios (girl:boy) varied by country, ranging from 1:3 to 1:16. Comparisons showed few gender effects in core ADHD symptomatology and clinical correlates of ADHD. Compared with boys, girls had significantly more parent-rated emotional symptoms and prosocial behaviour and were more likely to be the victim of bullying and less likely to be the bully. Girls and boys had similar levels of co-existing psychiatric and physical health problems, and received the same type of treatment.
Fewer girls than boys are referred for ADHD treatment, but they have a similar pattern of impairment and receive similar treatment.
Key wordsADHD girls gender differences Europe
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder Observational Research in Europe
ADHD Rating Scale-IV
Child Health and Illness Profile – Child Edition
Children's Global Assessment Scale
Clinical Global Impression – Severity scale
Health-Related Quality of Life
Multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
- 1.Andersson HW, Adnanes M, Hatling T (2004) National survey of the availability of diagnostic and comprehensive treatment services for children and adolescents with hyperkinetic disorders/ADHD. Report STF 78 A045012. SINTEF, NorwayGoogle Scholar
- 4.Becker A, Steinhausen HC, Baldursson G, Dalsgaard S, Lorenzo MJ, Ralston SJ, Döpfner M, Rothenberger A and the ADORE study group (2006) Psychopathological screening of children with ADHD: strengths and difficulties questionnaire in a pan-European study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 15(Suppl 1):56–62Google Scholar
- 9.DuPaul GJ, Power TJ, Anastopoulos AD, Reid R (1998) ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklists, Norms and Clinical Interpretation. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 17.Green M, Wong M, Atkins D, Taylor J, Feinleib M (1999) Diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Rockville, MD. Technical Review No 3. AHCPR Publication No 99-0050Google Scholar
- 18.Guy W (1976) Clinical Global Impressions. In: ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology, revised. National Institute of Mental Health, Rockville MDGoogle Scholar
- 19.Kato PM, Nichols ML, Kerivan AS, Huffman LC (2001) Identifying characteristics of older and younger females with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Deve Beha Pediatr 22:306–315Google Scholar
- 20.Newcorn JH, Halperin JM, Jensen PS, Abikoff HB, Arnold LE, Cantwell DP, Conners CK, Elliott GR, Epstein JN, Greenhill LL, Hechtman L, Hinshaw SP, Hoza B, Kraemer HC, Pelham WE, Severe JB, Swanson JM, Wells KC, Wigal T, Vitiello B (2001) Symptom profiles in children with ADHD: effects of comorbidity and gender. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:137–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Preuss U, Ralston S, Baldursson G, Falissard B, Lorenzo MJ, Pereira RR, Vlasveld L, Coghill D and the ADORE study group (2006) Study design, baseline patient characteristics and intervention in a cross-cultural framework: results from the ADORE study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 15(Suppl 1):4–14Google Scholar
- 23.Riley AW, Forrest C, Starfield B, Rebok G, Green B, Robertson J (2001) Child Health and Illness Profile – Child Edition (CHIP-CE™). The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MDGoogle Scholar
- 25.Rothenberger A, Woerner W (2004) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) – evaluations and applications. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13(Suppl 2):1–2Google Scholar
- 29.Sayal KS, Taylor EA (2003) Heterogeneity and comorbidity in hyperactivity disorders. Medscape General Medicine. Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewprogram/2345. Accessed 24 February 2006Google Scholar
- 30.Scahill L, Schwab-Stone M (2000) Epidemiology of ADHD in school-age children. Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin North Am 9:541–555Google Scholar