Knowledge about the impact of gastroplasty on oral health and salivary biomarkers is limited. The aim was to prospectively evaluate oral health status, salivary inflammatory markers, and microbiota in patients undergoing gastroplasty compared with a control group undergoing a dietary program.
Materials and methods
Forty participants with obesity class II/III were included (20 individuals in each sex-matched group; 23–44 years). Dental status, salivary flow, buffering capacity, inflammatory cytokines, and uric acid were assessed. Salivary microbiological analysis (16S-rRNA sequencing) assessed the abundance of genus, species, and alpha diversity. Cluster analysis and mixed-model ANOVA were applied.
Oral health status, waist-to-hip ratio, and salivary alpha diversity were associated at baseline. A subtle improvement in food consumption markers was observed, although caries activity increased in both groups, and the gastroplasty group showed worse periodontal status after three months. IFNγ and IL10 levels decreased in the gastroplasty group at 3 months, while a decrease was observed in the control group at 6 months; IL6 decreased in both groups (p < 0.001). Salivary flow and buffering capacity did not change. Significant changes in Prevotella nigrescens and Porphyromonas endodontalis abundance were observed in both groups, while alpha diversity (Sobs, Chao1, Ace, Shannon, and Simpson) increased in the gastroplasty group.
Both interventions changed in different degrees the salivary inflammatory biomarkers and microbiota, but did not improve the periodontal status after 6 months.
Although the observed discrete improvement in dietary habits, caries activity increased with no clinical improvement in the periodontal status, emphasizing the need of oral health monitoring during obesity treatment.
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Body mass index
Community Periodontal Index
Decayed, missed, and filled teeth
Operational taxonomic units
Analysis of variance
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This work was supported by the State of São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, SP, Brazil, grants number 2016/10940-9, 2017/26400-6 and 2020/16020-4) and the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES/financial code 001 - scholarship). The funding sources were not involved in the data collection, analysis, and interpretation; neither in the manuscript writing and in the decision to submit it for publication.
This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (CAAE 78018517.1.0000.5505). All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committees and with the latest version of the Helsinki Declaration.
Written free and informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.
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Ribeiro, A.S.P., Marquezin, M.C.S., Pacheco, E.R.P. et al. Bypass gastroplasty impacts oral health, salivary inflammatory biomarkers, and microbiota: a controlled study. Clin Oral Invest 27, 4735–4746 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-023-05101-3