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Relationship between dry mouth and hypertension

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Salivary dysfunction, such as reduced salivary flow and an altered salivary composition, is caused by several diseases, medical conditions, and medications. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between hypertension and morphological changes in the submandibular glands.

Materials and methods

An epidemiological study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between hypertension and dry mouth. The effects of hypertension on morphological changes and the intima thickness of arteries in the submandibular glands were histopathologically investigated.


Among 1933 subjects in the epidemiological study, 155 (8.0%) had dry mouth. A multivariate analysis revealed that dry mouth correlated with age (p < 0.001), sex (p < 0.001), and hypertension (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the size of the submandibular glands between patients with or without hypertension. The average area of acinar cells was smaller in patients with than in those without hypertension (0.366 ± 0.153 vs. 0.465 ± 0.178, p < 0.05). The arteriosclerotic index was significantly higher in patients with than in those without hypertension (0.304 ± 0.034 vs 0.475 ± 0.053, p < 0.05).


Hypertension may contribute to the degeneration of the submandibular glands by decreasing the number of acinar cells and promoting fatty infiltration and stenosis of the arteries.

Clinical relevance

There may be a correlation between hypertension and the degeneration of the submandibular glands by decreasing the number of acinar cells and promoting fatty infiltration and stenosis of the arteries.

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Metabolic syndrome


High-density lipoprotein cholesterol


Hemoglobin A1c


Estimated glomerular filtration rate


Magnetic resonance imaging


Arteriosclerosis index


Odds ratio


Confidence interval


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We wish to thank Medical English Service ( for English proofreading of this manuscript.


This study was funded by the 8020 health promotion.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Conception and design of the study: Kurita H

Analysis and interpretation of data: Kawamoto M, Yamada S, and Kurita H

Collection and assembly of data: Sakurai A, Gibo T, Kajihara R, Hakoyama Y, Otagiri H, Hashidume M, Kubo K, Aizawa H, Tanaka H, Kondo E, Sakai H, Kaneko T, and Uehara T

Drafting of the article: Kawamoto M and Yamada S

Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: Yamada S

Final approval of the article: Kurita H

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shin-ichi Yamada.

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Ethical approval

The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Shinshu University School of Medicine. (No. #4003 and #4264).

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Formal consent was not required for this type of study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

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Kawamoto, M., Yamada, Si., Gibo, T. et al. Relationship between dry mouth and hypertension. Clin Oral Invest 25, 5217–5225 (2021).

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