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Hard tissue volumetric and soft tissue contour linear changes at implants with different surface characteristics after experimentally induced peri-implantitis: an experimental in vivo investigation



To evaluate the hard tissue volumetric and soft tissue contour linear changes in implants with two different implant surface characteristics after a ligature-induced peri-implantitis.

Material and methods

In eight beagle dogs, implants with the same size and diameter but distinct surface characteristics were placed in the healed mandibular sites. Test implants had an external monolayer of multi-phosphonate molecules (B+), while control implants were identical but without the phosphonate-rich surface. Once the implants were osseointegrated, oral hygiene was interrupted and peri-implantitis was induced by placing subgingival ligatures. After 16 weeks, the ligatures were removed and peri-implantitis progressed spontaneously. Bone to implant contact (BIC) and bone loss (BL) were assessed three-dimensionally with Micro-Ct (μCT). Dental casts were optically scanned and the obtained digitalized standard tessellation language (STL) images were used to assess the soft tissue vertical and horizontal contour linear changes.


Reduction of the three-dimensional BIC percentage during the induction and progression phases of the experimental peri-implantitis was similar for both the experimental and control implants, without statistically significant differences between them. Soft tissue analysis revealed for both implant groups an increase in horizontal dimension after the induction of peri-implantitis, followed by a decrease after the spontaneous progression period. In the vertical dimension, a soft tissue dehiscence was observed in both groups, being more pronounced at the buccal aspect.


The added phosphonate-rich surface did not provide a more resistant environment against experimental peri-implantitis, when assessed by the changes in bone volume and soft tissue contours.

Clinical relevance

Ligature-induced peri-implantitis is a validated model to study the tissue changes occurring during peri-implantitis. It was hypothesized that a stronger osseointegration mediated by the chemical bond of a phosphonate-rich implant surface would develop an environment more resistant to the inflammatory changes occurring after experimental peri-implantitis. These results, however, indicate that the hard and soft tissue destructive changes occurring at both the induction and progression phases of experimental peri-implantitis were not influenced by the quality of osseointegration.

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The authors would like to express their gratitude to Liebert Parreiras Nogueira at the Clinical Oral Research Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo for their help preparing and analyzing the microCT data.


This study was partially supported with a research contract between the University Complutense of Madrid and MIS Dental Implants.

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Correspondence to Javier Sanz-Esporrin.

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Supplementary Information

Supplementary graph 1

Graphic representation of the hard tissue volumetric analysis obtained by means of μCT. Blue and green rectangles corresponded to test and control group, respectively. (PNG 187 kb)

High Resolution Image (TIF 2701 kb)

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Di Raimondo, R., Sanz-Esporrin, J., Martin, I.S. et al. Hard tissue volumetric and soft tissue contour linear changes at implants with different surface characteristics after experimentally induced peri-implantitis: an experimental in vivo investigation. Clin Oral Invest 25, 3905–3918 (2021).

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  • Experimental in vivo investigation
  • Implant surface microtopography
  • Experimental peri-implantitis
  • Micro-CT analysis
  • Volumetric analysis