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Physicochemical, antimicrobial, and biological properties of White-MTAFlow



To evaluate a new material containing tantalum oxide as an alternative radiopacifier, and a water-based gel for hydration, in comparison with two calcium silicate–based cement: ProRoot MTA and Biodentine.

Materials and methods

ProRoot MTA (Dentsply), Biodentine (Septodont), and a new hydraulic calcium silicate cement White-MTAFlow (Ultradent) (in ‘thin’ consistency) were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The interaction with dentin was also assessed using SEM and EDS. Physical and chemical properties radiopacity, setting time, linear flow, volumetric central filling, and lateral flow, pH, and volume change were investigated together with the color luminosity (L) and color change (ΔE). The agar diffusion and direct contact antimicrobial activity, and methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity using human fibroblast cells were also evaluated. Data were statistically analyzed at a 5% significance level.


All materials were composed of tricalcium and dicalcium silicate but had different radiopacifiers, and calcium hydroxide (portlandite) deposition was detected in XRD analysis. White-MTAFlow exhibited radiopacity values in accordance with ISO standard, and the longest setting time. The water-based gel provided the highest linear flow, a comparable cavity central filling, and the highest groove-lateral flow in the volumetric flow analysis. White-MTAFlow exhibited an alkalinity reduction, and Biodentine, a progressive increase of pH values after 28 days. However, similar volume loss for White-MTAFlow was assessed in comparison to Biodentine after the 28-day immersion. White-MTAFlow showed the highest L value (91.5), and ProRoot MTA the lowest (78.1) due to dentin staining caused by bismuth migration. None of the materials exhibited inhibition halos against the tested bacteria, and similar turbidity values were obtained after 48 h in direct contact with E. faecalis, indicating an upregulation to bacterial growth. White-MTAFlow showed MTT cytocompatibility similarly to the control group.


White-MTAFlow in ‘thin’ consistency presents comparable physicochemical, biological, and antimicrobial properties to ProRoot MTA and Biodentine, and does not cause color alteration in dentin.

Clinical relevance

White-MTAFlow is a suitable material for use as reparative endodontic cement. Further studies considering its biocompatibility are necessary.

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The authors wish to thank Mr. Maicon Ricardo Zieberg Passini and Mr. Adriano Luis Martins for their technical assistance.


This study was supported by the State of São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP - Processes numbers 2017/05096-7, 2017/17785-1, 2018/06515-6, 2018/06903-6, and 2018/166722-9).

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Correspondence to Lauter E. Pelepenko.

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This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Piracicaba Dental School (Ethics code: CAAE 20189119.7.0000.5418).

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This study did not involve human subjects directly.

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Pelepenko, L.E., Saavedra, F., Antunes, T.B.M. et al. Physicochemical, antimicrobial, and biological properties of White-MTAFlow. Clin Oral Invest 25, 663–672 (2021).

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  • White-MTAFlow
  • ProRoot MTA
  • Biodentine
  • Hydraulic calcium silicate cement