To compare the microbial load and composition and to determine the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) concentrations found in primary apical periodontitis (PAP) and post-treatment apical periodontitis (PTAP), correlating these findings with clinical/tomographic features.
Material and methods
Sixty patients with PAP (31) and PTAP (29) were submitted to clinical and tomographic assessment. Samples were collected from each root canal using paper points for microbiological assessment (culture technique and Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization) and determination of LPS and LTA levels (limulus amebocyte lysate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively). Data were correlated with clinical/tomographic findings and statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and Pearson correlation tests (α = 5%).
A higher number of cultivable bacteria and LPS were found in PAP (p < 0.05). The median number of species per root canal found in PAP and PTAP was 9 and 22, respectively (p < 0.05). LPS was positively correlated with a larger periapical lesion volume (p < .05). LTA levels were similar in both infections and had no correlation with signs and symptoms. In PAP, gram-positive bacteria were correlated with spontaneous pain (p < .05) and exudate (p < .05). Tenderness to percussion and pain on palpation were correlated to the presence of both gram-positive and negative bacteria. In PTAP, a positive correlation was observed between both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with exudate and periapical lesion volume (p < .05).
PAP had higher contents of microbial load and LPS compared with PTAP. However, PTAP presented a more diverse microbiota compared with PAP. Higher content of LPS was positively correlated with larger periapical bone destruction, whereas signs and symptoms with specific microorganisms.
It was verified that PAP and PTAP are polymicrobial infections with predominance of gram-negative bacteria and a more diverse bacterial population found in PTAP. A wide interaction of specific microbial species resulted in different clinical features in both infections.
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The work was supported by the Programa Nacional de Cooperação Acadêmica da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior–CAPES/Brasil and the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo-FAPESP (grant numbers. 2015/05397-1 and 2018/01703-9).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the local Institute Review Board (São Paulo State University (Unesp), Institute of Science and Technology, São José dos Campos, Brazil) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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Machado, F.P., Khoury, R.D., Toia, C.C. et al. Primary versus post-treatment apical periodontitis: microbial composition, lipopolysaccharides and lipoteichoic acid levels, signs and symptoms. Clin Oral Invest 24, 3169–3179 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-019-03191-6
- Apical periodontitis
- Lipoteichoic acid
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
- Nucleic acid hybridization