Skip to main content

Do family functioning and mothers’ and children’s stress increase the odds of probable sleep bruxism among schoolchildren? A case control study

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the association between probable sleep bruxism (PSB) and associated factors in schoolchildren.

Materials and methods

A case-control study was conducted with a representative sample of 320 schoolchildren aged 8 to 10 years. The case group (160 children with PSB) and the control group (160 children without PSB) were matched for sex and age at a proportion of 1:1. Information on audible characteristics of PSB, harmful oral habits, and socio-demographic characteristics as collected through questionnaires answered by the parents/caregivers. The family functioning of children was measured through The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES III). Mothers self-administered the Lipp Stress Symptoms Inventory (LSSI) for adults to measure mothers’ stress and the children filled out the Child Stress Scale (CSS) to measure the children stress. Data analysis used descriptive and logistic regression analyses (p < 0.05).

Results

Among the children with stress, 67.3% had PSB. Children with stress (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.18–4.19), those with a history of nail biting (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.39–3.55), and biting objects (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.09–2.87) were more likely to have PSB.

Conclusion

Childhood stress and a history of nail biting or biting objects are important signs to be considered in schoolchildren with PBS.

Clinical relevance

These results alert that the PBS might be a sign of stress and other psychological problems such as tension and anxiety related to the presence of harmful oral habits. Furthermore, the results could help in the targeting of anamnesis, improved prevention and treatment strategies for sleep bruxism which should involve an interdisciplinary approach.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Lobbezoo F, Ahlberg J, Raphael KG et al (2018) International consensus on the assessment of bruxism: report of a work in progress. J Oral Rehabil 5:837–844. https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.12663

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Manfredini D, Restrepo C, Diaz-Serrano K, Winocur E, Lobbezoo F (2013) Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: a systematic review of the literature. J Oral Rehabil 40:631–642. https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.12069

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Huynh N, Guilleminault C (2009) Sleep bruxism in children. In: Lavigne GJ, Cistulli PA, Smith MT (eds) Sleep medicine for dentists. A practical overview. Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc, Chicago (IL), pp 125–131

    Google Scholar 

  4. Serra-Negra JM, Paiva SM, Abreu MH, Flores-Mendoza CE, Pordeus IA (2013) Relationship between tasks performed, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in Brazilian school children a population-based cross-sectional study. PLoS One 8:e80075. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080075

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Renner AC, da Silva AA, Rodriguez JD, Simões VM, Barbieri MA, Bettiol H, Thomaz EB, Saraiva Mda C (2012) Are mental health problems and depression associated with bruxism in children? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 40:277–278. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2011.00644.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Drumond CL, Souza SD, Serra-Negra JM, Marques LS, Ramos Jorge ML, Ramos Jorge J (2017) Respiratory disorders and the prevalence of sleep bruxism among schoolchildren aged 8 to 11 years. Sleep Breath 21:203–208. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-017-1466-9

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Lavigne GJ, Khoury S, Abe S, Yamaguchi T, Raphael K (2008) Bruxism physiology and pathology: an overview for clinicians. J Oral Rehabil 35:476–494. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2008.01881.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Rossi D, Manfredini D (2013) Family and school environmental predictors of sleep bruxism in children. J Orofac Pain 27:135–141. https://doi.org/10.11607/jop.1057

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Serra-Negra JM, Paiva SM, Flores-Mendoza CE, Ramos-Jorge ML, Pordeus IA (2012) Association among stress, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in children. Pediatr Dent 34:30–34

    Google Scholar 

  10. Serra-Negra JM, Paiva SM, Auad SM, Ramos-Jorge ML, Pordeus IA (2012) Signs, symptoms, parafunctions and associated factors of parent-reported sleep bruxism in children: a case-control study. Braz Dent J 23:746–752

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Goettems ML, Poletto-Neto V, Shqair AQ, Pinheiro RT, Demarco FF (2017) Influence of maternal psychological traits on sleep bruxism in children. Int J Paediatr Dent 27:469–475. https://doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12285

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Vieira-Andrade RG, Drumond CL, Martins-Júnior PA, Corrêa-Faria P, Gonzaga GC, Marques LS, Ramos-Jorge ML (2014) Prevalence of sleep bruxism and associated factors in preschool children. Pediatr Dent 36:46–50

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Simões-Zenari M, Bitar ML (2010) Factors associated to bruxism in children from 4–6 years. Pro Fono 22:465–472. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-5687201000040001814

  14. Emodi-Perlman A, Eli I, Friedman-Rubin P, Goldsmith C, Reiter S, Winocur E (2012) Bruxism, oral parafunctions, anamnestic and clinical findings of temporomandibular disorders in children. J Oral Rehabil 39:126–135. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2011.02254.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Ferreira-Bacci Ado V, Cardoso CL, Díaz-Serrano KV (2012) Behavioral problems and emotional stress in children with bruxism. Braz Dent J 23:246–251. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-64402012000300011

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Alencar NA, Fernandes AB, Souza MM, Luiz RR, Fonseca-Gonçalves A, Maia LC (2016) Lifestyle and oral facial disorders associated with sleep bruxism in children. Cranio 35:168–174. https://doi.org/10.1080/08869634.2016.1196865

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Carra MC, Huynh N, Morton P, Rompré PH, Papadakis A, Remise C, Lavigne GJ (2011) Prevalence and risk factors of sleep bruxism and wake-time tooth clenching in a 7- to 17-yr-old population. Eur J Oral Sci 19:386–394. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.2011.00846.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Massignan C, de Alencar NA, Soares JP, Santana CM, Serra-Negra J, Bolan M, Cardoso M (2018) Poor sleep quality and prevalence of probable sleep bruxism in primary and mixed dentitions: a cross-sectional study. Sleep Breath 22:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-018-1771-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Drumond CL, Ramos-Jorge J, Vieira-Andrade RG, Paiva SM, Serra-Negra JMC, Ramos-Jorge ML (2018) Prevalence of probable sleep bruxism and associated factors in Brazilian schoolchildren. Int J Paediatr Dent 30. https://doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12443

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Lobbezzo F et al (2013) Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus. J Oral Rehabil 40:2–4. https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.12011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Falceto OG, Busnello ED, Bozzet MC (2000) Validation of diagnostic scales of family functioning for use in primary health care services. Rev Panam Salud Pública 7:255–263

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Lipp MEN (2005) Manual do Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp (ISSL), 3ed. São Paulo: Casa do Psicólogo p 89

  23. Lipp MEN, Lucarelli MDM (2005) Escala de Stress Infantil: ESI: manual. 2nd ed. São Paulo: Casa do Psicólogo, p 61

    Google Scholar 

  24. Smith BG, Knight JK (1984) An index for measuring the wear of teeth. Br Dent J 156:435–438

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Mota-Veloso I, Celeste RK, Fonseca CP, Soares MEC, Marques LS, Ramos-Jorge ML, Ramos-Jorge J (2017) Effects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder signs and socio-economic status on sleep bruxism and tooth wear among schoolchildren: structural equation modelling approach. Int J Paediatric Dent 27:523–531. https://doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12291

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. O'Brien M (1993) Children's dental health in the United Kingdom, London: OPCS. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1994; 74–76, 113.

  27. Mason RM (2005) A retrospective and prospective view of orofacial myology. Int J Orofacial Myology 31:5–14

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Dworkin SF, LeResche L (1992) Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders: review, criteria, examinations and specifications, critique. J Craniomand Disord 6:339–342

    Google Scholar 

  29. Carlsson GE, Egermark I, Magnusson T (2003) Predictors of bruxism, other oral parafunctions, and tooth wear over a 20-year follow-up period. J Orofac Pain 17:50–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(03)00177-X

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Morley DS (2000) Psychophysiological reactivity to stress in nail biters. Int J Neurosci 103:139–154

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Tanaka OM, Vitral RW, Tanaka GY, Guerrero AP, Camargo ES (2008) Nail biting, or onychophagia: a special habit. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 134:305–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.06.023

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Koolhaas JM, Bartolomucci A, Buwalda B et al (2011) Stress revisited: A critical evaluation of the stress concept. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:1291–1301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.02.003

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Lucas-Thompson RG, Goldberg WA (2011) Family relationships and children's stress responses. Adv Child Dev Behav 40:243–299

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Martin CG, Kim HK, Fisher PA (2016) Differential sensitization of parenting on early adolescent cortisol: Moderation by profiles of maternal stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology 67:18–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.01.025

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Koch F, Ludvigsson J, Sepa A (2010) Parents’ psychological stress over time may affect children’s cortisol at age 8. J Pediatr Psychol 35:950–959. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsp132

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Place M, Hulsmeier J, Brownrigg A, Soulsby A (2005) The family adaptability and cohesion evaluation scale (FACES): an instrument worthy of rehabilitation? Psychiatric Bulletin 29:215–218

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Raphael KG, Janal MN, Sirois DA, Dubrovsky B, Klausner JJ, Krieger AC, Lavigne GJ (2015) Validity of self-reported sleep bruxism among myofascial temporomandibular disorder patients and controls. J Oral Rehabil 42:751–758. https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.12310

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to psychologist Pollyana Santos Siqueira for her assistance in the interpretation of the psychological tests and Professor Franklin Daniel Rothman, Ph. D, for final critical review of the article.

Funding

The work was supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brasil (CAPES) – Finance Code 001, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) -Finance Code (153137/2018-5).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Clarissa Lopes Drumond.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Drumond, C.L., Paiva, S.M., Vieira-Andrade, R.G. et al. Do family functioning and mothers’ and children’s stress increase the odds of probable sleep bruxism among schoolchildren? A case control study. Clin Oral Invest 24, 1025–1033 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-019-02997-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-019-02997-8

Keywords

  • Sleep bruxism
  • Child
  • Psychological stress
  • Family
  • Habits
  • Epidemiology