The mineralizing effect of zinc oxide-modified hydroxyapatite-based sealer on radicular dentin
The aim of this study was to evaluate the remineralization ability of three endodontic sealer materials at different root dentin regions.
Material and methods
Cervical, medial, and apical root dentin surfaces were treated with two experimental hydroxyapatite-based cements, containing sodium hydroxide (calcypatite) or zinc oxide (oxipatite); an epoxy resin-based canal sealer, AH Plus; and gutta-percha. Remineralization, at the inner and outer zones of dentin disk surfaces, was studied by nanohardness (Hi) and Raman analysis. Nanoroughness and collagen fibrils width measurements were performed. Numerical data, at 24 h or 12 m, were analyzed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls (p < 0.05).
At the outer and inner zones of the cervical dentin treated with oxipatite, the highest Hi after 12 m of immersion was achieved. The same group showed the highest intensity of phosphate peak, markers for calcification and crystallinity. Nanoroughness was lower and fibril diameter was higher at the inner zone of the dentin treated with oxipatite. Dentin mineralization occurred in every region of the root dentin treated with oxipatite and calcypatite, especially at the inner zone of the dentin after 12 m.
Oxipatite reinforced the inner root zone at any third of the radicular dentin, by increasing both nanohardness and remineralization. When using calcypatite, the highest nanohardness was found at the apical third of the inner root dentin, but the lowest mechanical performance was obtained at the cervical and the medial thirds of the roots. Therefore, application of oxipatite as sealing cement of root canals is recommended.
Oxipatite, when used as an endodontic sealing material, strengthens radicular dentin.
KeywordsHardness Hydroxyapatite Raman Remineralization Root dentin Zinc
Project MAT2017-85999-P MINECO/AEI/FEDER/UE supported by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and European Regional Development Fund.
Project MAT2017-85999-P MINECO/AEI/FEDER/UE supported by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) and European Regional Development Fund (FEDER).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in the present study, involving human participants, were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 4.Patil P, Banga KS, Pawar AM, Pimple S, Ganeshan R (2017) Influence of root canal obturation using gutta-percha with three different sealers on root reinforcement of endodontically treated teeth. An in vitro comparative study of mandibular incisors. J Conserv Dent 20:241–244. https://doi.org/10.4103/JCD.JCD_233_16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Kinney JH, Nalla RK, Pople JA, Breunig TM, Ritchie RO (2005) Age-related transparent root dentin: mineral concentration, crystallite size, and mechanical properties. Biomaterials 26:3363–3376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Gandolfi MG, Ciapetti G, Taddei P, Perut F, Tinti A, Cardoso MV, van Meerbeek B, Prati C (2010) Apatite formation on bioactive calcium-silicate cements for dentistry affects surface topography and human marrow stromal cells proliferation. Dent Mater 26:974–992. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2010.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Viapiana R, Guerreiro-Tanomaru JM, Hungaro-Duarte MA, Tanomaru-Filho M, Camilleri J (2014) Chemical characterization and bioactivity of epoxy resin and Portland cement-based sealers with niobium and zirconium oxide radiopacifiers. Dent Mater 30:1005–1020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2014.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Kunstar A, Leijten J, van Leuveren S, Hilderink J, Otto C, van Blitterswijk CA, Karperien M, van Apeldoorn AA (2012) Recognizing different tissues in human fetal femur cartilage by label-free Raman microspectroscopy. J Biomed Opt 17:116012. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.17.11.116012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Toledano M, Aguilera FS, Osorio E, López-López MT, Cabello I, Toledano-Osorio M, Osorio R (2015) On modeling and nanoanalysis of caries-affected dentin surfaces restored with Zn-containing amalgam and in vitro oral function. Biointerphases 10:041004. https://doi.org/10.1116/1.4933243 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Wang C, Wang Y, Huffman NT, Cui C, Yao X, Midura S, Midura RJ, Gorski JP (2009) Confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy of biomineralization foci in UMR 106 osteoblastic cultures reveals temporally synchronized protein changes preceding and accompanying mineral crystal deposition. J Biol Chem 284:7100–7113. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M805898200 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 44.Kaushik M, Kumar U, Sharma R, Mehra N, Rathi A (2018) Stress distribution in endodontically treated abfracted mandibular premolar restored with different cements and crowns: a three-dimensional finite element analysis. J Conserv Dent 21:557–561. https://doi.org/10.4103/JCD.JCD_206_18 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 45.Toledano M, Osorio R, Osorio E, Medina-Castillo AL, Toledano-Osorio M, Aguilera FS (2017) Ions-modified nanoparticles affect functional remineralization and energy dissipation through the resin-dentin interface. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 68:62–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.01.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 46.Bertassoni LE, Stankoska K, Swain MV (2012) Insights into the structure and composition of the peritubular dentin organic matrix and the lamina limitans. Micron Oxf Engl 1993 43:229–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2011.08.003
- 51.Low I-M (2004) Depth-profiling of crystal structure, texture, and microhardness in a functionally graded tooth enamel. J Am Ceram Soc 87:2125–2131. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.2004.tb06369.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 56.Tay FR, Pashley DH, Rueggeberg FA, Loushine RJ, Weller RN (2007) Calcium phosphate phase transformation produced by the interaction of the Portland cement component of white mineral trioxide aggregate with a phosphate-containing fluid. J Endod 33:1347–1351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2007.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 65.Toledano M, Cabello I, Osorio E, et al (2018) Zn-containing polymer nanogels promote cervical dentin remineralizationGoogle Scholar