The mineralizing effect of zinc oxide-modified hydroxyapatite-based sealer on radicular dentin

  • Manuel Toledano
  • Esther Muñoz-Soto
  • Fátima S. Aguilera
  • Estrella Osorio
  • Mayra C. Pérez-Álvarez
  • José AD. García-Menocal
  • Manuel Toledano-OsorioEmail author
  • Raquel Osorio
Original Article



The aim of this study was to evaluate the remineralization ability of three endodontic sealer materials at different root dentin regions.

Material and methods

Cervical, medial, and apical root dentin surfaces were treated with two experimental hydroxyapatite-based cements, containing sodium hydroxide (calcypatite) or zinc oxide (oxipatite); an epoxy resin-based canal sealer, AH Plus; and gutta-percha. Remineralization, at the inner and outer zones of dentin disk surfaces, was studied by nanohardness (Hi) and Raman analysis. Nanoroughness and collagen fibrils width measurements were performed. Numerical data, at 24 h or 12 m, were analyzed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls (p < 0.05).


At the outer and inner zones of the cervical dentin treated with oxipatite, the highest Hi after 12 m of immersion was achieved. The same group showed the highest intensity of phosphate peak, markers for calcification and crystallinity. Nanoroughness was lower and fibril diameter was higher at the inner zone of the dentin treated with oxipatite. Dentin mineralization occurred in every region of the root dentin treated with oxipatite and calcypatite, especially at the inner zone of the dentin after 12 m.


Oxipatite reinforced the inner root zone at any third of the radicular dentin, by increasing both nanohardness and remineralization. When using calcypatite, the highest nanohardness was found at the apical third of the inner root dentin, but the lowest mechanical performance was obtained at the cervical and the medial thirds of the roots. Therefore, application of oxipatite as sealing cement of root canals is recommended.

Clinical relevance

Oxipatite, when used as an endodontic sealing material, strengthens radicular dentin.


Hardness Hydroxyapatite Raman Remineralization Root dentin Zinc 



Project MAT2017-85999-P MINECO/AEI/FEDER/UE supported by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and European Regional Development Fund.


Project MAT2017-85999-P MINECO/AEI/FEDER/UE supported by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) and European Regional Development Fund (FEDER).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in the present study, involving human participants, were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuel Toledano
    • 1
  • Esther Muñoz-Soto
    • 1
  • Fátima S. Aguilera
    • 1
  • Estrella Osorio
    • 1
  • Mayra C. Pérez-Álvarez
    • 2
  • José AD. García-Menocal
    • 2
  • Manuel Toledano-Osorio
    • 1
    Email author
  • Raquel Osorio
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Institute IBS, Dental SchoolUniversity of Granada. Colegio MáximoGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Biomaterials DepartmentUniversity of La HavanaHavanaCuba

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