To evaluate the critical bond strength (σ) of ceramic and metal brackets to a lithium disilicate-based glass–ceramic.
Materials and methods
Two hundred and forty ceramic specimens (IPS e-max CAD) were randomly distributed in 12 experimental groups (n = 20). Two ceramic brackets (monocrystalline, BCm; and polycrystalline, BCp) and a metal bracket (BM) were bonded to glass–ceramic specimens after one of the following surface treatments: HF—hydrofluoric acid applied for 60 s; S—silane applied for 3 min; HFS—HF followed by S; and MDP—application of an adhesive containing a phosphate monomer (MDP). All brackets were bonded to the treated glass–ceramic using a resin cement, stored in 37 °C water for 48 h before shear bond strength testing. Optical (OM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopies were used for fractographic analysis. Data was statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Student–Newman–Keuls (α = 0.05).
BCm bonded to glass–ceramic treated with either HFS or HF showed the highest median σ values, respectively, 10.5 MPa and 8.5 MPa. In contrast, the BCp bonded to glass–ceramic treated with MDP showed the lowest median σ value (0.8 MPa), which was not statistically different from other MDP-treated groups.
The failure mode was governed by the glass–ceramic surface treatment, not by the bracket type. Quantitative (σ values) and qualitative (fracture mode) data suggested a minimum of 5 MPa for brackets bonded to glass–ceramic, which is the lower critical limit bond strength for a comprehensive orthodontic treatment.
Bonding brackets to glass–ceramic requires micromechanical retention.
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The work was partially supported by Capes do Brazil and CNPq do Brasil (302587/2017-9).
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Di Guida, L.A., Benetti, P., Corazza, P.H. et al. The critical bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to dental glass–ceramics. Clin Oral Invest 23, 4345–4353 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-019-02881-5
- Material strength
- Orthodontic brackets